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Propaganda and Persuasion Techniques people use to make you believe what they have to say.

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Presentation on theme: "Propaganda and Persuasion Techniques people use to make you believe what they have to say."— Presentation transcript:

1 Propaganda and Persuasion Techniques people use to make you believe what they have to say

2 3 Types of Persuasive Techniques Ethos- An appeal based on the character of the speaker. Ethos is based on the reputation of the author. Logos-Appeal based on logic or reason. Documents distributed by companies or scholars are logos driven Pathos-appeal based on emotion. Advertisements are pathos driven.

3 Ad hominem: a Latin phrase; this technique attacks an opinion and not an argument. Ad Nauseam: this approach uses tireless repetition of an idea. An idea that is repeated enough may be taken as truth Analysis of facts: making sense of information for readers

4 Appeal to authority: cites prominent figures to support a position, idea, argument, or course of action Appeal to fear: seeks to build support by instilling anxieties and panic in the general population Bandwagon: attempts to persuade the target audience to join in and take the course of action that everyone else is taking

5 Black and White Fallacy: Presenting only two choices with the product or idea being propagated as the better choice Beautiful People: Using famous people or attractive, happy people to sell a product or idea. Bribery: offering payoff for support

6 Which technique? Appeal to Fear Black and White Fallacy

7 Bribery Bandwagon

8 Celebrity Endorsement: someone famous promotes a product Common Man or Plain Folks: using ordinary people to appeal to the common man in an attempt to identify with the average person Demonizing the enemy: making the opposition appear to be sub- human

9 Direct order: aims to simplify the decision making process by using images and words to tell the audience exactly what action to take; eliminates other choices. Disinformation: the creation or deletion of information from public record Emotional appeal: using feelings of guilt, fear, patriotism, etc. to get support Euphemism: Using less offensive terms to describe or discuss a topic

10 Which technique? Emotional Appeal Common Man/Plain Folks

11 Which Technique? Disinformation Celebrity Endorsement

12 Euphoria: creating happiness or using an appealing event to boost morale Exaggeration: over emphasizing to make a point Expert Witness: using a respected professional to support an argument Flag-waving: an attempt to justify an action on the grounds it will make one more patriotic or benefit the country or idea

13 Flattery: complimenting in order to get something in return Glittering Generalities: Emotionally appealing words applied to a product or idea, but no concrete support is given Half-truth: a deceptive statement that may have some element of truth Humor: using comedy to get you to remember a product or idea

14 Which Technique? Exaggeration Expert Witness

15 Which Technique? Glittering Generalities Euphoria

16 Intentional Vagueness: deliberately vague so the audience can supply its own interpretation Labeling: a technique used to increase the perceived quality, credibility, or credence of a particular idea. Logical reasoning: arguments based on information and what makes sense

17 Obtain Disapproval: persuading an audience to disapprove of an idea or action suggesting that it is popular with groups that are hated or feared. Oversimplification: Favorable generalities used to provide simple answers to complex ideas. Quotes out of context: selective editing of quotes which can change meanings

18 Name calling: technique used to incite fear and arouse prejudices Red Herring: presenting data or issues that, while compelling, are irrelevant to the argument at hand. Repetition: Deals with a jungle or word that is repeated over and over again. Scapegoating: assigning blame to an individual or group, alleviating feelings of guilt

19 Which Technique? Oversimplification Logical Reasoning

20 Which technique? Quotes out of Context Intentional Vagueness

21 Sex Appeal: using attractive people to sell Slogans: a brief or striking phrase that may include labeling and stereotyping Statistics: information presented in numbers Stereotyping: arousing prejudices in an audience by labeling to target fear, hatred, and undesirable qualities

22 Testimonial: quotes (taken in and out of context) cited to support or reject a policy, program, or personality Threat: proposing harm for not supporting Transfer: projecting positive or negative qualities of a person to make another choice more acceptable Virtue words: attaching a positive image when attached to a person or issue

23 Which Technique? Statistics Slogan

24 Which Technique? Testimonial Transfer

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