Presentation on theme: "TWO VIEWS OF GOVERNMENT"— Presentation transcript:
1 TWO VIEWS OF GOVERNMENT THOMAS HOBBESv.JOHN LOCKE
2 EQHow do the ideas of the philosophes build on the ideas of the scientists?How do the ideas of the philosophes represent a dangerous challenge to the traditional authorities of Europe?How do the ideas of the philosophes shape the democracies of the modern world?
3 THOMAS HOBBES, 1588-1679 WROTE LEVITHAN (1651) MAN IS NATURALLY WICKED & FOOLISHNEED GOV’T TO KEEP ORDERWITHOUT GOV’T MAN IS IN A “STATE OF NATURE”
4 THOMAS HOBBES ARGUED THAT STRONG GOV’T IS ONLY WAY TO PROTECT PEOPLE PEOPLE GIVE UP RIGHTS FOR ORDER & PROTECTIONCALLED “SOCIAL CONTRACT”
5 THOMAS HOBBESBECAUSE OF THE SOCIAL CONTRACT, HOBBES WOULD SAY THAT BAD GOV’T IS BETTER THAN NO GOV’TWHAT BETTER FORM OF GOV’T TO PROVIDE ORDER THAN ABSOLUTISM?
6 THE LEVITHAN"During the time men live without a common power to keep them all in awe, they are in that conditions called war; and such a war, as if of every man, against every man."To this war of every man against every man, this also in consequent; that nothing can be unjust. The notions of right and wrong, justice and injustice have there no place. Where there is no common power, there is no law, where no law, no injustice. Force, and fraud, are in war the cardinal virtues."No arts; no letters; no society; and which is worst of all, continual fear, and danger of violent death: and the life of man, solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short."
7 JOHN LOCKE 1632-1704 BELIEVED IN HUMAN POTENTIAL THOUGHT MAN COULD LEARN AND IMPROVETHOUGHT MAN COULD TAKE CARE OF HIMSELF– DID NOT NEED ABSOLUTISM
8 JOHN LOCKEGOV’T IS CREATED FOR ONE REASON ALONE: TO PROTECT THE 3 NATURAL RIGHTSLIFELIBERTYPROPERTYIF GOV’T FAILS, IT CAN & SHOULD BE OVERTHROWN
9 JOHN LOCKE WROTE TWO TREATISES ON GOVERNMENT (1690) LAID OUT IDEA THAT POWER TO RULE COMES FROM THE CONSENT OF THE GOVERNED, NOT FROM DIVINE RIGHTTHIS IS BASIS OF MODERN DEMOCRACY
10 LOCKE’S THOUGHTS ON GOV’T Any single man must judge for himself whether circumstances warrant obedience or resistance to the commands of the civil magistrate; we are all qualified, entitled, and morally obliged to evaluate the conduct of our rulers. This political judgment, moreover, is not simply or primarily a right, but like self-preservation, a duty to God. As such it is a judgment that men cannot part with according to the God of Nature. It is the first and foremost of our inalienable rights without which we can preserve no other.