Presentation on theme: "Pre-WWI U.S. Foreign Policy A brief tour of events and developments that don’t really fit into any cohesive story of American history, but are good to."— Presentation transcript:
Pre-WWI U.S. Foreign Policy A brief tour of events and developments that don’t really fit into any cohesive story of American history, but are good to know about anyway.
TR: “Walk softly, and carry a big stick.”
“I took the Canal Zone, and let Congress debate, and while the debate goes on, the Canal does also!” –TR, 1911
The Roosevelt Corollary Roosevelt Corollary (1904): the U.S. would intervene in Latin America due to “chronic wrongdoing,” rather than allow European powers intrude. Dominican Republic defaults on its debts in 1903 and several European nations threaten to invade; TR intervenes, takes over the D.R.’s customs house and sets up a debt repayment plan. American troops intervene in Cuba, Panama, D.R., Mexico, Nicaragua, Venezuela, Haiti from 1902-1917 The effect: poor relations with the entire region of Latin America for a generation
TR: Nobel Peace Prize Winner! In 1905, TR helped negotiate the Treaty of Portsmouth, which ended a war between Japan and Russia and was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Gentlemen’s Agreement: Asian American students had been forced into segregated schools in California; TR makes a deal with Japan to limit Japanese immigration and persuades California to repeal its discriminatory laws. Root-Takahira Agreement (1908): US and Japan agree to respect each other’s Pacific possessions and the Open Door in China. In 1906, he negotiated peace between France and Germany over control over Morocco. In 1907, TR sent representatives to the 2 nd International Peace Conference at the Hague to discussion the limitation of warfare.
Taft’s “Dollar Diplomacy” Private American investment in China and Latin America would lead to greater stability and better relationships. Only partially successful: US was excluded from a railroad agreement in Manchuria Taft had to send troops into Nicaragua in 1912 after U.S. bankers had lent $15 million to a new leader, Adolfo Diaz.
Wilson’s Moral Diplomacy “The U.S. would never again seek one additional foot of territory by conquest.” Jones Act: gave the Philippines full territorial status, a bill of rights, and universal male suffrage, with a promise for independence Puerto Rico: granted citizenship and limited self government Panama Canal: U.S. ships had to now pay tolls However… Intervention in the Caribbean and Latin America continued Marines sent to occupy Nicaragua, Haiti, Dominican Republic
Mexico Democratic reformer Francisco Madero ended the 30 year rule of Porfirio Diaz in 1911; then he was overthrown and murdered by General Huerta. Wilson refuses to recognize Huerta’s government and sends arms to rival General Carranza, blockades the port of Vera Cruz, sends 7,000 troops. Carranza takes power. Local rebels and bandits challenged Carranza’s authority: – Pancho Villa stages raids across the border into the US; Wilson sends 12,000 soldiers into Mexico to find him and 150,000 National Guard to the border! Wilson withdrew them in 1917 and never got him. He was assassinated in 1923 by a political rival in Mexico.