Presentation on theme: "Explaining Second Language Learning I"— Presentation transcript:
1 Explaining Second Language Learning I by Lisa Kaci, Josephin Oberhokamp, Hendrik Fitzner & Camilla Honerlage
2 Table of content Questions Behaviourism The innatist perspective Mimicry and memorizationThe innatist perspectiveUniversal Grammar“Monitor Model”Psychological theoriesCognitivist/developmental perspectiveInformation processingConnectionismThe competition modelDiscussion
3 QuestionsWhat are the steps with which Behaviorism explains language? Name them and give an example.What are the two different theories about the nature of Universal Grammar?What are the 5 hypotheses of Krashen’s “Monitor Model? Explain two of them briefly.To what refer “declarative knowledge” and “procedural knowledge”?What does the Competition Model explain?
4 Behaviourism Theory of learning Very influential between the 1940s and 1970sNurture Environment has great importance
5 Behaviourism Explains learning in terms of: ImitationPractice (mimicry)Reinforcement Formation of habit = language development
6 Behaviourism Video: Learning English, Spanglish Video: Some funny guy learning English
7 BehaviourismInfluence on development of audiolingual teaching and material great emphasis on mimicry and memorization
8 Behaviourism Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis assumes: First and target language similarTarget language is learned with easeFirst and target language differentTarget language is learned with difficulty
9 Behaviourism But: learners did not do the predicted errors All learners made nearly the same errorsInfluence of first language is the process of finding similarities
10 Criticism on Behaviourism and CAH Behaviourism + Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis are inadequate explanations for second language acquisition
11 Universal Grammar Noam Chomsky Innate linguistic knowledge which consists of a set of principles common to all languagesExplanation for second language acquisition?
12 Universal Grammar Lydia White: Robert Bley-Vroman/Jacquelyn Schachter: best perspective for second language acquisition; but nature of Universal Grammar is alteredRobert Bley-Vroman/Jacquelyn Schachter:Not a good explanation for second language acquisition: critical period is passedVivian CookLearners have more knowledge than input could give them
13 Universal Grammar Different theories about its nature Nature and availability of Universal Grammar are the same in first language acquisition and second language acquisitionUniversal Grammar that is present to second language learners has been altered in its nature by acquisition of other languages
14 Monitor Model Stephen Krashen Model of second language acquisition Influenced by Chomsky‘s theory of first language acquisition
15 Monitor Model Based on 5 hypotheses: Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis Monitor HypothesisNatural Order HypothesisInput HypothesisAffective Filter Hypothesis
17 Psychological theories: cognitivist/developmental perspective Since 1990 central role in second language acquisitionComputer as metaphor for mindCapacities for storage, integration and retrievalNo specific module in brain for acquisition/learningUG as explanation for first language acquisition Less successful for second language acquisition
18 Psychological theories: cognitivist/developmental perspective Information processingConnectionismThe competition model
19 Information processing Norman Segalowitz:Second language acquisition as the building up of knowledge for automatic use of speaking and understandingLearner first pays attention to any aspect of language for understanding/production controlled processingExperience/practice easier process of information quicker automatic access
20 Information processing Controlled processingAutomatic processingSlow accessUnder control of attentionLimited in capacityQuick accessRequires little attentionNeeds little capacity to perform
21 Information processing Robert DeKeyser:Second language acquisition as “skill learning”Learning starts with declarative knowledgeBecomes procedural knowledge through practiceProcesses become proceduralized/automized like other skillsParallel to development from controlled to automatic processing
22 Information processing Declarative knowledgeProcedural knowledgeInvolves acquisition of isolated facts and rules knowing thate.g. knowing that a car can be drivenRequires practiceInvolves processing of longer units and increasing automizationknowing howe.g. knowing how to drive a car
23 Information processing Example: car drivingBegin learning to drive a carClose attention to every action/decisionAware that performances can easily be disturbed (e.g. talking)Practice skill improvesAutomizationExperienced driverAble to pay attention to previously disturbing events
24 Information processing RestructuringChanges in language behaviorQuality changes in learner‘s knowledgeNew forms are not just added to oldRegular systematic reorganization and reformulationSudden burst of knowledge or backslidingSystematic aspect of learner‘s language incorporates too much or wrong things saw + ed
25 Connectionism Innate: only the simple ability to learn Very important: the role of the environment
26 Connectionism Emphasis is on the frequency Encountering of specific linguistic features in the inputHow often features occur together
27 Connectionism Knowledge of language built up through exposure “connections” build upStronger connections the more often something is heard chunks
28 The competition modelExplains first language and second language acquisitionHypothesis:“language acquisition occurs without the necessity of a learner‘s focused attention or the need for any innate brain module that is specifically for language“
29 The competition model Language use and language meaning important Learners understand how to use “cues” word order, grammatical markers and animacy of nouns
30 The competition model Example: „Box push boy“ Depends on the mother tongue, how second languages are learnedExample: “Il giocattolo guardail il bambino”Two/three year oldFour year oldUses cues of animacy and their knowledge of the way things work in the world.Children will give a SVO interpretation to strings of the words.
31 QuestionsWhat are the steps with which Behaviorism explains language? Name them and give an example.What are the two different theories about the nature of Universal Grammar?What are the 5 hypotheses of Krashen’s “Monitor Model? Explain two of them briefly.To what refer “declarative knowledge” and “procedural knowledge”?What does the Competition Model explain?
32 BibliographyDoughty, C. J. & Long, M.H. (eds.) (2003). The Handbook of Second Language Acquisition. Malden, MA: Blackwell. Gramley, S. & Gramley, V. (eds.) (2008). Bielefeld Introduction to Applied Linguistics. Bielefeld: Aithesis. Lightbown, P. M. & Spada, N. (2006). How Languages are Learned. 3rd Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Mitchell, R. & Myles, F. (1998). Second Language Learning Theories. London: Arnold. Richards, J.C. & Rodgers, T. S. (2001). Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching. 2nd edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Saville-Troike, M. (2006). Introducing Second Language Acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.