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EXPLAINING SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING I by Lisa Kaci, Josephin Oberhokamp, Hendrik Fitzner & Camilla Honerlage.

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Presentation on theme: "EXPLAINING SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING I by Lisa Kaci, Josephin Oberhokamp, Hendrik Fitzner & Camilla Honerlage."— Presentation transcript:

1 EXPLAINING SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING I by Lisa Kaci, Josephin Oberhokamp, Hendrik Fitzner & Camilla Honerlage

2 Table of content 1. Questions 2. Behaviourism  Mimicry and memorization 3. The innatist perspective  Universal Grammar  “Monitor Model” 4. Psychological theories  Cognitivist/developmental perspective  Information processing  Connectionism  The competition model 5. Discussion

3 Questions 1. What are the steps with which Behaviorism explains language? Name them and give an example. 2. What are the two different theories about the nature of Universal Grammar? 3. What are the 5 hypotheses of Krashen’s “Monitor Model? Explain two of them briefly. 4. To what refer “declarative knowledge” and “procedural knowledge”? 5. What does the Competition Model explain?

4 Behaviourism  Theory of learning  Very influential between the 1940s and 1970s  Nurture  Environment has great importance

5 Behaviourism  Explains learning in terms of:  Imitation  Practice (mimicry)  Reinforcement  Formation of habit = language development

6 Behaviourism  Video: Learning English, SpanglishLearning English, Spanglish  Video: Some funny guy learning EnglishSome funny guy learning English

7 Behaviourism  Influence on development of audiolingual teaching and material  great emphasis on mimicry and memorization

8 Behaviourism  Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis assumes: First and target language similar Target language is learned with ease First and target language different Target language is learned with difficulty

9 Behaviourism  But: learners did not do the predicted errors  All learners made nearly the same errors  Influence of first language is the process of finding similarities

10 Criticism on Behaviourism and CAH  Behaviourism + Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis are inadequate explanations for second language acquisition

11 Universal Grammar  Noam Chomsky  Innate linguistic knowledge which consists of a set of principles common to all languages  Explanation for second language acquisition?

12 Universal Grammar  Lydia White:  best perspective for second language acquisition; but nature of Universal Grammar is altered  Robert Bley-Vroman/Jacquelyn Schachter:  Not a good explanation for second language acquisition: critical period is passed  Vivian Cook  Learners have more knowledge than input could give them

13 Universal Grammar  Different theories about its nature  Nature and availability of Universal Grammar are the same in first language acquisition and second language acquisition  Universal Grammar that is present to second language learners has been altered in its nature by acquisition of other languages

14 Monitor Model  Stephen Krashen  Model of second language acquisition  Influenced by Chomsky‘s theory of first language acquisition

15 Monitor Model Based on 5 hypotheses: 1. Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis 2. Monitor Hypothesis 3. Natural Order Hypothesis 4. Input Hypothesis 5. Affective Filter Hypothesis

16 Monitor Model

17 Psychological theories: cognitivist/developmental perspective  Since 1990 central role in second language acquisition  Computer as metaphor for mind  Capacities for storage, integration and retrieval  No specific module in brain for acquisition/learning  UG as explanation for first language acquisition  Less successful for second language acquisition

18 Psychological theories: cognitivist/developmental perspective  Theories:  Information processing  Connectionism  The competition model

19 Information processing  Norman Segalowitz:  Second language acquisition as the building up of knowledge for automatic use of speaking and understanding  Learner first pays attention to any aspect of language for understanding/production  controlled processing  Experience/practice  easier process of information  quicker automatic access

20 Information processing  Slow access  Under control of attention  Limited in capacity  Quick access  Requires little attention  Needs little capacity to perform Controlled processingAutomatic processing

21 Information processing  Robert DeKeyser:  Second language acquisition as “skill learning”  Learning starts with declarative knowledge  Becomes procedural knowledge through practice  Processes become proceduralized/automized like other skills  Parallel to development from controlled to automatic processing

22 Information processing  Involves acquisition of isolated facts and rules  knowing that  e.g. knowing that a car can be driven  Requires practice  Involves processing of longer units and increasing automization  knowing how  e.g. knowing how to drive a car Declarative knowledgeProcedural knowledge

23 Information processing  Example: car driving  Begin learning to drive a car Close attention to every action/decision Aware that performances can easily be disturbed (e.g. talking)  Practice  skill improves Automization  Experienced driver Able to pay attention to previously disturbing events

24 Information processing  Restructuring  Changes in language behavior  Quality changes in learner‘s knowledge New forms are not just added to old Regular systematic reorganization and reformulation  Sudden burst of knowledge or backsliding Systematic aspect of learner‘s language incorporates too much or wrong things  saw + ed

25 Connectionism  Innate: only the simple ability to learn  Very important: the role of the environment

26 Connectionism  Emphasis is on the frequency  Encountering of specific linguistic features in the input  How often features occur together

27 Connectionism  Knowledge of language built up through exposure  “connections” build up  Stronger connections the more often something is heard  chunks

28 The competition model  Explains first language and second language acquisition  Hypothesis: “language acquisition occurs without the necessity of a learner‘s focused attention or the need for any innate brain module that is specifically for language“

29 The competition model  Language use and language meaning important  Learners understand how to use “cues”  word order, grammatical markers and animacy of nouns

30 The competition model   Example: „Box push boy“  Depends on the mother tongue, how second languages are learned  Example: “Il giocattolo guardail il bambino” Two/three year oldFour year old Uses cues of animacy and their knowledge of the way things work in the world. Children will give a SVO interpretation to strings of the words.

31 Questions 1. What are the steps with which Behaviorism explains language? Name them and give an example. 2. What are the two different theories about the nature of Universal Grammar? 3. What are the 5 hypotheses of Krashen’s “Monitor Model? Explain two of them briefly. 4. To what refer “declarative knowledge” and “procedural knowledge”? 5. What does the Competition Model explain?

32 Bibliography Doughty, C. J. & Long, M.H. (eds.) (2003). The Handbook of Second Language Acquisition. Malden, MA: Blackwell. Gramley, S. & Gramley, V. (eds.) (2008). Bielefeld Introduction to Applied Linguistics. Bielefeld: Aithesis. Lightbown, P. M. & Spada, N. (2006). How Languages are Learned. 3rd Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Mitchell, R. & Myles, F. (1998). Second Language Learning Theories. London: Arnold. Richards, J.C. & Rodgers, T. S. (2001). Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching. 2nd edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Saville-Troike, M. (2006). Introducing Second Language Acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


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