Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Explaining Second Language Learning I

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Explaining Second Language Learning I"— Presentation transcript:

1 Explaining Second Language Learning I
by Lisa Kaci, Josephin Oberhokamp, Hendrik Fitzner & Camilla Honerlage

2 Table of content Questions Behaviourism The innatist perspective
Mimicry and memorization The innatist perspective Universal Grammar “Monitor Model” Psychological theories Cognitivist/developmental perspective Information processing Connectionism The competition model Discussion

3 Questions What are the steps with which Behaviorism explains language? Name them and give an example. What are the two different theories about the nature of Universal Grammar? What are the 5 hypotheses of Krashen’s “Monitor Model? Explain two of them briefly. To what refer “declarative knowledge” and “procedural knowledge”? What does the Competition Model explain?

4 Behaviourism Theory of learning
Very influential between the 1940s and 1970s Nurture  Environment has great importance

5 Behaviourism Explains learning in terms of:
Imitation Practice (mimicry) Reinforcement  Formation of habit = language development

6 Behaviourism Video: Learning English, Spanglish
Video: Some funny guy learning English

7 Behaviourism Influence on development of audiolingual teaching and material  great emphasis on mimicry and memorization

8 Behaviourism Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis assumes:
First and target language similar Target language is learned with ease First and target language different Target language is learned with difficulty

9 Behaviourism But: learners did not do the predicted errors
All learners made nearly the same errors Influence of first language is the process of finding similarities

10 Criticism on Behaviourism and CAH
Behaviourism + Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis are inadequate explanations for second language acquisition

11 Universal Grammar Noam Chomsky
Innate linguistic knowledge which consists of a set of principles common to all languages Explanation for second language acquisition?

12 Universal Grammar Lydia White: Robert Bley-Vroman/Jacquelyn Schachter:
best perspective for second language acquisition; but nature of Universal Grammar is altered Robert Bley-Vroman/Jacquelyn Schachter: Not a good explanation for second language acquisition: critical period is passed Vivian Cook Learners have more knowledge than input could give them

13 Universal Grammar Different theories about its nature
Nature and availability of Universal Grammar are the same in first language acquisition and second language acquisition Universal Grammar that is present to second language learners has been altered in its nature by acquisition of other languages

14 Monitor Model Stephen Krashen Model of second language acquisition
Influenced by Chomsky‘s theory of first language acquisition

15 Monitor Model Based on 5 hypotheses: Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis
Monitor Hypothesis Natural Order Hypothesis Input Hypothesis Affective Filter Hypothesis

16 Monitor Model

17 Psychological theories: cognitivist/developmental perspective
Since 1990 central role in second language acquisition Computer as metaphor for mind Capacities for storage, integration and retrieval No specific module in brain for acquisition/learning UG as explanation for first language acquisition  Less successful for second language acquisition

18 Psychological theories: cognitivist/developmental perspective
Information processing Connectionism The competition model

19 Information processing
Norman Segalowitz: Second language acquisition as the building up of knowledge for automatic use of speaking and understanding Learner first pays attention to any aspect of language for understanding/production  controlled processing Experience/practice  easier process of information  quicker automatic access

20 Information processing
Controlled processing Automatic processing Slow access Under control of attention Limited in capacity Quick access Requires little attention Needs little capacity to perform

21 Information processing
Robert DeKeyser: Second language acquisition as “skill learning” Learning starts with declarative knowledge Becomes procedural knowledge through practice Processes become proceduralized/automized like other skills Parallel to development from controlled to automatic processing

22 Information processing
Declarative knowledge Procedural knowledge Involves acquisition of isolated facts and rules  knowing that e.g. knowing that a car can be driven Requires practice Involves processing of longer units and increasing automization knowing how e.g. knowing how to drive a car

23 Information processing
Example: car driving Begin learning to drive a car Close attention to every action/decision Aware that performances can easily be disturbed (e.g. talking) Practice  skill improves Automization Experienced driver Able to pay attention to previously disturbing events

24 Information processing
Restructuring Changes in language behavior Quality changes in learner‘s knowledge New forms are not just added to old Regular systematic reorganization and reformulation Sudden burst of knowledge or backsliding Systematic aspect of learner‘s language incorporates too much or wrong things  saw + ed

25 Connectionism Innate: only the simple ability to learn
Very important: the role of the environment

26 Connectionism Emphasis is on the frequency
Encountering of specific linguistic features in the input How often features occur together

27 Connectionism Knowledge of language built up through exposure
“connections” build up Stronger connections the more often something is heard  chunks

28 The competition model Explains first language and second language acquisition Hypothesis: “language acquisition occurs without the necessity of a learner‘s focused attention or the need for any innate brain module that is specifically for language“

29 The competition model Language use and language meaning important
Learners understand how to use “cues”  word order, grammatical markers and animacy of nouns

30 The competition model Example: „Box push boy“
Depends on the mother tongue, how second languages are learned Example: “Il giocattolo guardail il bambino” Two/three year old Four year old Uses cues of animacy and their knowledge of the way things work in the world. Children will give a SVO interpretation to strings of the words.

31 Questions What are the steps with which Behaviorism explains language? Name them and give an example. What are the two different theories about the nature of Universal Grammar? What are the 5 hypotheses of Krashen’s “Monitor Model? Explain two of them briefly. To what refer “declarative knowledge” and “procedural knowledge”? What does the Competition Model explain?

32 Bibliography Doughty, C. J. & Long, M.H. (eds.) (2003). The Handbook of Second Language Acquisition. Malden, MA: Blackwell. Gramley, S. & Gramley, V. (eds.) (2008). Bielefeld Introduction to Applied Linguistics. Bielefeld: Aithesis. Lightbown, P. M. & Spada, N. (2006). How Languages are Learned. 3rd Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Mitchell, R. & Myles, F. (1998). Second Language Learning Theories. London: Arnold. Richards, J.C. & Rodgers, T. S. (2001). Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching. 2nd edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Saville-Troike, M. (2006). Introducing Second Language Acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Download ppt "Explaining Second Language Learning I"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google