Presentation on theme: "Chapter 6 The Police: Organization, Role, and Function."— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 6The Police: Organization, Role, and Function
2 Police OrganizationPolice are organized in a militaristic hierarchical structurePrinciples of chain of command and unity of command are operationalPersonnel decisions often based on time-in-rank considerations
3 The Police RoleFearless crime fightersAlways making an arrestMost arrests are for serious feloniesAlways dealing with crimeOrdinary people doing a jobArrests average 2 per monthMost arrests are for misdemeanorsCalls dealing with crime are % of total
4 The Patrol FunctionDeter crime by being visibleMaintain public order (peacekeeping)Respond quickly to emergenciesArrest criminalsAid citizens in distressFacilitate movement of people and trafficCreate a sense of safety and security
5 Order Maintenance or Peacekeeping Order maintenance, or peacekeeping, accounts for the bulk of patrol activities. These functions fall on the border between criminal and non-criminal behavior. In many situations, this means the patrol officer uses his or her discretion to “handle situations” or to be problem solvers.
6 Does Patrol Work: The Kansas City Study Variations in patrol techniques (normal, proactive, and reactive) had very little effect on crime and citizens’ attitudes towards the police
7 Can Proactive Patrol Effect Crime Rates? It may not be the mere presence of police that deters crime, but how they approach the jobTargeting certain types of crimes for enforcement may be effectiveAggressive patrol and "crackdowns" in crime "hot spots” may help reduce criminal activity
8 Will Arrests Deter?Formal police action such as arrest may have a specific deterrent functionArrests seem to reduce the likelihood that first-time offenders will continue their activitySome evidence suggests that an increase in arrest rate can help reduce an area’s overall crime rate
9 How Effective are Investigations? Much time is spent on nonproductive workChances of making an arrest are most closely linked to when it was reported33% chance if reported in progress10% chance if reported 1 minute later5% if more than 15 minutes elapse before reporting the crime
10 Reasons for Investigative Inefficiencies Too little time is spent following unsolved cases.Sources of information must be broadly based. Victims can play a greater role as the source of important data.Improving the effectiveness of preliminary investigations by patrol officers will help detectives.
11 Improving Investigative Effectiveness Increasing the practice of giving patrol officers greater responsibility for conducting preliminary investigations at the scene of a crimeGreater emphasis on collecting physical evidence, identifying witnesses, checking departmental records, and using informantsPolice managers should pay more attention to screening cases and monitoring case flow and activity with measurable productivity goalsUse of targeted investigations with direct attention to career criminalsIncrease the use of available technologies
12 Changing Concepts of Policing Police-Community Relations (PCR) - improving the relationships between the police and publicTeam Policing - decentralized decision making so the police could easily respond to neighborhood problemsProblem-Oriented Policing - identifying and responding to long term problems
13 “Broken Windows Model” Neighborhood disorder creates fearNeighborhoods give out crime-promoting signalsPolice need citizens' cooperation
14 Community-Oriented Policing Problem solving is best done at the neighborhood level, not in some distant headquarters. Locally situated police working with residents are a good problem-solving team.
15 Innovative Neighborhood-Oriented Policing (INOP) Decentralization of police allows problem solving to occur at the level where issues originateStresses shared power with local groupsPatrol officer becomes manager of own beatEmphasizes results rather than bureaucratic details
16 Community-Oriented Policing: Changing the Police Role Citizens must actively participate with police in fighting crime. Power must be shared with local groups to give way to a “bottom-up” decision-making process.The effective police officer will be one whose skills produce well-managed communities. Therefore, training and recruitment efforts must be altered.
17 Problem-Oriented Policing The core of problem-oriented policing is a proactive orientation.Police are called upon with the community to identify particular long-term community problems that have a relationship to crime.
18 Hot Spots of CrimePart of Problem-Oriented PolicingThis concept concentrates on a relatively few locations that produce a significant portion of all police calls
19 The Challenges of Community Policing If Community-Oriented Policing is to be successful, new strategies must be developed to deal with significant administrative problems such as:Defining the community to which the police respondDefining the roles of all members of the crime prevention team – police and community membersChanging how police officers are supervisedRe-orienting police values to include community-oriented policing as central to the overall police missionRevise police training to help them become community organizersRecruit and promote police managers who are skilled and trained in community change strategies
20 Overcoming ObstaclesThe most professional and highly motivated officers are the ones most likely to support community policing efforts.There is no clear-cut evidence that community policing is highly successful at reducing crime or changing the traditional values and attitudes of police officers involved in such programs.National surveys find that police administrators still consider law enforcement their top priority.
21 Police Oversight: Civilian Review Boards Oversight systems generally are organized into one of four models or a variation of one that include:Citizens investigate allegations of police misconduct and recommend a finding to the head of the agency.Officers investigate allegations and develop findings. Then, citizens review and recommend that the head of the agency approve or reject the findings.Complainants may appeal findings established by the agency to citizens who review them and make recommendations to the head of the agency.An auditor investigates the process the agency uses to accept and investigate complaints and reports to the agency and the community the thoroughness and fairness of the process.
22 Can Police Productivity be Improved? ConsolidationInformal arrangements for periods of timeSharing resourcesPooling resourcesContract servicesUsing more civiliansGive cops more tasksProvide for a system of Differential Police Response (DPR)