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Chapter 4: Defining Intelligence-Led Policing. Important notes These slides are not a replacement for the text Please use these slides as a starting point.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4: Defining Intelligence-Led Policing. Important notes These slides are not a replacement for the text Please use these slides as a starting point."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 4: Defining Intelligence-Led Policing

2 Important notes These slides are not a replacement for the text Please use these slides as a starting point for your own PowerPoint presentation based on your reading of the book, and your needs. They are not designed to be a definitive record of the book chapter Please do not cite from these slides. Please cite any text from the book as some text may have changed. The book is the definitive record. Printing the slides The background for the slides is taken from the book cover. To print without the background, Right click on the slide background Click format background > Hide background graphics Click Apply to All Print as Slides with the color/grayscale set to Pure Black and White Dont forget to switch the background graphics back on! This is a hidden slide

3 Community policing Policing philosophy? Defined by its programs? neighborhood mini-stations customer satisfaction surveys foot patrols school visits Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE) local newsletters Neighborhood Watch Purpose – increase police legitimacy

4 Some CP definitions A collaboration between the police and the community that identifies and solves community problems (CPC 1994) An organizational strategy that leaves setting priorities and the means of achieving them largely to residents and the police who serve in their neighborhoods' (Skogan 2006b: 27–28)

5 CP key features Increases the interaction between the police and the community, either directly through collaboration or simply through consultation Attempts to provide named and accountable officers who know their area Gives communities a greater hand in driving police priorities Enhances decision-making at the lowest ranks of the police service Regains the legitimacy of police in the eyes of the public Allows a social service ethos to predominate, in which perceptions of community safety take priority Gives precedence to solving community problems over reactive law enforcement

6 Community policing Crime eventsOffenders Narrow Broad Community policing Operational focus Problem focus

7 Problem-oriented policing (POP) The emphasis in problem-oriented policing is on directing attention to the broad range of problems the community expects the police to handle … and on how police can be more effective in dealing with them. … It recognizes that the ultimate goal of the police is not simply to enforce the law, but to deal with problems effectively – ideally, by preventing them from occurring in the first place. Herman Goldstein (Foreword, in Scott 2000: vi)

8 POP key features Require officers and crime analysts to identify crime and disorder problems, and issues that cause harm to the community Seek a thorough and detailed analysis of a problem before determining a possible solution Allow that potential solutions to crime problems do not exclude the possibility of enforcement action by police, but often seek a long-term resolution that does not involve arrests Resolution of the underlying issue is at least as important as alleviation of the harmful consequences of the problem Greater decision-making and problem-solving freedom should be given to officers Evaluation of the outcome of a solution is required in order to determine success

9 SARA methodology Scanning Identifying recurring problems and how the ensuing consequences affect community safety Analysis Collecting and analyzing all relevant data on the problem, with the objective of revealing ways to alter the causes of the problem Response Seeking out responses that might have worked elsewhere, identifying a range of local options, and then selecting and implementing specific activities that will resolve the problem Assessment Testing data collected before and after the response phase in order to determine whether the response reduced the problem and, if not, to identify new strategies that might work

10 Problem-oriented policing (POP) Crime eventsOffenders Narrow Broad POP Operational focus Problem focus

11 Compstat Compstat is a police managerial accountability mechanism Compstat involves four principles: Timely and accurate intelligence Effective tactics Rapid deployment Relentless follow-up and assessment

12 Accountability In a Compstat oriented police department, mid-level commanders are made accountable to the executive level of the police department for the management of crime in their basic command units. By encouraging accountability, it is believed that precinct captains and managers will make use of regular, detailed crime intelligence and from this intelligence flow determine an appropriate crime reduction strategy.

13 Compstat Crime eventsOffenders Narrow Broad Compstat Operational focus Problem focus

14 Original tenets of intelligence-led policing Target prolific and serious criminals Triage out most crime from further investigation Make greater strategic use of surveillance and informants Position intelligence central to decision-making (HMIC 1997: 1)

15 NIM Control Strategy The targeting of offenders The management of crime and disorder hot spots The investigation of linked series of crimes and incidents The application of preventative measures

16 What is intelligence-led policing? Intelligence-led policing… is a management philosophy/business model aims to achieve crime reduction and prevention and to disrupt offender activity employs a top-down management approach combines crime analysis and criminal intelligence into crime intelligence uses crime intelligence to objectively direct police resource decisions focuses enforcement activities on prolific and serious offenders

17 Original situation of intelligence-led policing Crime eventsOffenders Narrow Broad ILP #1 Operational focus Problem focus

18 Intelligence-led policing definition Intelligence-led policing is a business model and managerial philosophy where data analysis and crime intelligence are pivotal to an objective, decision-making framework that facilitates crime and problem reduction, disruption and prevention through both strategic management and effective enforcement strategies that target prolific and serious offenders

19 Intelligence-led policing Crime eventsOffenders Narrow Broad ILP #2 ILP #1 Operational focus Problem focus


21 Policing paradigms Crime eventsOffenders Narrow Broad Community policing POP Compstat ILP #2 ILP #1 Operational focus Problem focus

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