2Recruitment and Training: Becoming a Police Officer Basic Requirements:U.S. CitizenNo felony convictionsValid Driver’s LicenseMinimum 21 years of ageWeight, eyesight, and fitness requirementsBackground checkPolygraph
5Recruitment and Training: Becoming a Police Officer Field Training occurs after theacademy.The field training officer (FTO) helps the rookie apply what (s)he has learned “the the streets.”Training includes the policeacademy.Laws of arrest, search, seizure, and interrogationWeapons useCrime scene preservationWitness interviewingFirst aidSelf-defense
6Recruiting Members of Minority Groups and Women Only within the past fifteen years have police agencies actively been recruiting women, African Americans, Hispanics, Asian Americans, and other minority groups.Minority representation in police agencies has grown from 14.6% in 1987 to 23.6% in 2003.
7Recruiting Members of Minority Groups and Women Discrimination and the Law1964 Civil Rights Act1972 Equal Opportunity Employment ActThe Benefits of a Culturally Diverse PoliceForceImproved community relationsHigher levels of service
8Police OrganizationCornerstones:BureaucracyDelegation of Authority
10Law Enforcement in the Field Field Services (operations) include:Patrol activitiesInvestigationsSpecial operations
11Law Enforcement in the Field The purposes of patrol include:The deterrence of crime by maintaining a visible police presenceThe maintenance of public order and a sense of security in the communityThe twenty-four hour provision of services that are not crime related
12Law Enforcement in the Field Routine patrol activities can be categorizedinto four areas:Preventive patrolCalls for serviceAdministrative dutiesOfficer-initiated activities
13Law Enforcement in the Field Investigations:Reactive, rather than proactiveThe responsibility of detectivesSuccess is measured with clearance rates, or the number of cases resulting in arrest and prosecutionAggressive strategies include going undercover and working with confidential informants.
14Law Enforcement in the Field Forensics is the practiceof using science andtechnology toinvestigate crime.Forensics can be usedto determine:Cause of death/injuryTime of death/injuryType of weaponIdentity of the victimIdentity of the offender
15Law Enforcement in the Field The DNA Revolution:DNA provides the genetic blueprint for every living organism.When DNA is recovered at a crime scene and matched to a suspect, the odds that match is conclusive are 30 million to 1.The Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) is a database that stores DNA samples taken from crime scenes.As of 2007, CODIS has produces almost 59,000 cold hits nationwide.
17Police Strategies: What Works More police officers, less crime?Response time to 911 callsIncident-driven policingResponse time as a benchmark of efficiencyDifferential response“Cold” calls versus “hot” calls
18Police Strategies: What Works General patrol:relies on officers to monitora certain area to detectingcrimes in progress orpreventing crimes due totheir presence.Also called preventivepatrol, or random patrol.Directed patrol:is designed to respond to aspecific criminal activity at aspecific time.Targeted areas are labeledhot spots.
19Police Strategies: What Works Reactive Arrests:Arrests that come aboutas part of the ordinaryroutine of police patroland calls for service .Proactive Arrests:Arrests that occur whenpolice take the initiativeto target a particulartype of criminalbehavior.
20Police Strategies: What Works Broken Windows Theory:A neighborhood in disrepair signals that criminal activity is tolerated in the areaBy cracking down on quality-of-life crimes, police can reclaim the neighborhood and encourage law-abiding citizens to live and work thereBased on order maintenance of neighborhoods
21Police Strategies: What Works Community policing is a strategy that emphasizes community support for and cooperation with police in preventing crime.Community policing is:less centralizedproactive in nature
23Community Policing Problem-Oriented Policing: A key component of community policingMoves beyond simply responding to incidents and attempts instead to control or even solve the root causes of criminal behaviorTwo important aspects of problem-solving policing are “hot spots” and crime mapping
24“Us versus Them”: Issues in Modern Policing Police Subculture:The values and perceptions that are shared by members of a police department. These values permeate agencies and are taught to new officers through a process of socialization.
25“Us versus Them”: Issues in Modern Policing Rituals critical to the police officer’s acceptanceof police subculture:Attending a recruit academyWorking with a senior officer who passes on the lessons of police work and lifeMaking the initial felony arrestUsing force to make an arrest for the first timeWitnessing major traumatic incidents for the first time
26“Us versus Them”: Issues in Modern Policing The Blue Curtain, aka the “blue wall of silence”Police cynicismPhysical and mental dangers associated with police workChronic stressAlcohol abuseSuicide
27“Us versus Them”: Issues in Modern Policing Authority and the Use of ForceReasonable Force: Deadly Force:The degree of force Force likely orthat is appropriate intended to causeto protect the officer death.and other citizens.
28“Us versus Them”: Issues in Modern Policing The United States Supreme Court and Useof Force:Tennessee v. Garner (1985)Graham v. Conner (1989)
29“Us versus Them”: Issues in Modern Policing Types of Corruption:BriberyShakedownsMooching
30“Us versus Them”: Issues in Modern Policing Sherman’s Stages of Moral Decline:Officers accept minor gratuities.Officers accept bribes.Officers actively seek out bribes and commit extortion.
31“Us versus Them”: Issues in Modern Policing Police accountability:Internal investigationsCitizen Oversight
32Police Ethics Ethical dilemmas are defined as a situation in which law enforcement officers:Do not know the right course of actionHave difficulty doing what they consider to be right; and/orFind the wrong choice very tempting
33Police Ethics Four categories of Ethical Dilemmas: Discretion Duty HonestyLoyalty
34Police Ethics Officers should ask themselves: Is it legal? Is it balanced?How does it make me feel about myself?