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Alexia Molina, Sofia Batres, Javier Atala, Nelson Frech

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1 Alexia Molina, Sofia Batres, Javier Atala, Nelson Frech
Chapter 3 Alexia Molina, Sofia Batres, Javier Atala, Nelson Frech


3 Section 1: States of Matter
Solids: Definite shape and definite volume Particles are close together 2 types: Amorphous and Crystalline Amorphous solids: particles are not arranged in a regular pattern. Crystalline solids: particles are arranged in a pattern.

4 Liquids… Definite volume but no definite shape Particles move freely
Properties of Liquids: Surface Tension: an inward pull among the molecules of a liquid that brings the molecules on the surface closer together. Viscosity: a liquids resistance to flowing

5 Gases… No definite shape No definite volume
Particles move rapidly and they fill all the space available. Gases are also considered fluids which means substance that flows.

6 Section 2: Changes of State
Melting: changes from solid to liquid Most pure substances melt at a specific temperature. The particles of a solid are vibrating so fast they break free from their fixed position. Freezing: changes from a liquid to solid. The particles of a liquid are moving so slow they form regular patterns.


8 Changes in State Vaporization: changes from liquid to gas
Particles in a liquid gain enough energy to form a gas. Evaporation: takes place only in the surface of a liquid. Boiling: occurs when a liquid changes to a gas below it surface as well as at surface. Boiling point: the temperature at which a liquid boils. Condensation: occurs when particles in a gas lose enough thermal energy to form a liquid.


10 Solid to gas Sublimation: occurs when the surface particles of a solid gain enough energy that they form a gas. During sublimation particles of a solid do not pass through the liquid state as they form a gas.


12 Changes of State Melting Vaporization Melting Point Boiling Point
Solid Liquid Gas Freezing Condensation Sublimation Deposition Fluids Solids Liquids Gases -Crystalline -Amorphous -Surface Tension -Viscosity -Evaporating -Boiling -Particles Fixed Packed: Closely Together -Move Freely -Close -Far Apart -Definite Shape -Definite Volume -Undefined shape -Undefined Shape -Undefined Volume

13 Section 3: Gas behavior Measuring gases
When working with gas, it is helpful to know its volume, temperature, and pressure Volume: the amount of space that matter files. Temperature: the measure of the average energy of random motion of the particles in a substance Pressure: force of its outward push divided by the area of the walls of the container

14 Pressure and Volume Pressure & Volume Boyle’s Law Inverse T ↑P ↓V
Pressure & Temperature Direct V ↑P ↑T ↓P ↓T Volume & Temperature Charles’s Law P ↑V ↑T ↓V ↓T

15 Boyle’s Law Pressure (kPa) Volume (mL)

16 Charles’s Law

17 Laws… Boyle`s Law: when pressure decreases, volume increases
Charles`s Law: when pressure increases so does volume.

18 Section 4: Graphing Gas Behavior
First you collect data and then you graph it. After gathering info you record temperature and data Origin: a line that passes through all cero points Vary Inversely: when a graph of two variables forms a kind of curve. Y axis= Volume X axis =Temperature Temperature (K) Volume (mL)

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