3 Section 1: States of Matter Solids:Definite shape and definite volumeParticles are close together2 types: Amorphous and CrystallineAmorphous solids: particles are not arranged in a regular pattern.Crystalline solids: particles are arranged in a pattern.
4 Liquids… Definite volume but no definite shape Particles move freely Properties of Liquids:Surface Tension: an inward pull among the molecules of a liquid that brings the molecules on the surface closer together.Viscosity: a liquids resistance to flowing
5 Gases… No definite shape No definite volume Particles move rapidly and they fill all the space available.Gases are also considered fluids which means substance that flows.
6 Section 2: Changes of State Melting: changes from solid to liquidMost pure substances melt at a specific temperature.The particles of a solid are vibrating so fast they break free from their fixed position.Freezing: changes from a liquid to solid.The particles of a liquid are moving so slow they form regular patterns.
8 Changes in State Vaporization: changes from liquid to gas Particles in a liquid gain enough energy to form a gas.Evaporation: takes place only in the surface of a liquid.Boiling: occurs when a liquid changes to a gas below it surface as well as at surface.Boiling point: the temperature at which a liquid boils.Condensation: occurs when particles in a gas lose enough thermal energy to form a liquid.
10 Solid to gasSublimation: occurs when the surface particles of a solid gain enough energy that they form a gas.During sublimation particles of a solid do not pass through the liquid state as they form a gas.
12 Changes of State Melting Vaporization Melting Point Boiling Point SolidLiquidGasFreezingCondensationSublimationDepositionFluidsSolidsLiquidsGases-Crystalline-Amorphous-Surface Tension-Viscosity-Evaporating-Boiling-Particles FixedPacked: Closely Together-Move Freely-Close-Far Apart-Definite Shape-Definite Volume-Undefined shape-Undefined Shape-Undefined Volume
13 Section 3: Gas behavior Measuring gases When working with gas, it is helpful to know its volume, temperature, and pressureVolume: the amount of space that matter files.Temperature: the measure of the average energy of random motion of the particles in a substancePressure: force of its outward push divided by the area of the walls of the container
14 Pressure and Volume Pressure & Volume Boyle’s Law Inverse T ↑P ↓V Pressure & TemperatureDirectV↑P ↑T↓P ↓TVolume & TemperatureCharles’s LawP↑V ↑T↓V ↓T
17 Laws… Boyle`s Law: when pressure decreases, volume increases Charles`s Law: when pressure increases so does volume.
18 Section 4: Graphing Gas Behavior First you collect data and then you graph it.After gathering info you record temperature and dataOrigin: a line that passes through all cero pointsVary Inversely: when a graph of two variables forms a kind of curve.Y axis= VolumeX axis =TemperatureTemperature (K)Volume (mL)