3Section 1: States of Matter Solids:Definite shape and definite volumeParticles are close together2 types: Amorphous and CrystallineAmorphous solids: particles are not arranged in a regular pattern.Crystalline solids: particles are arranged in a pattern.
4Liquids… Definite volume but no definite shape Particles move freely Properties of Liquids:Surface Tension: an inward pull among the molecules of a liquid that brings the molecules on the surface closer together.Viscosity: a liquids resistance to flowing
5Gases… No definite shape No definite volume Particles move rapidly and they fill all the space available.Gases are also considered fluids which means substance that flows.
6Section 2: Changes of State Melting: changes from solid to liquidMost pure substances melt at a specific temperature.The particles of a solid are vibrating so fast they break free from their fixed position.Freezing: changes from a liquid to solid.The particles of a liquid are moving so slow they form regular patterns.
8Changes in State Vaporization: changes from liquid to gas Particles in a liquid gain enough energy to form a gas.Evaporation: takes place only in the surface of a liquid.Boiling: occurs when a liquid changes to a gas below it surface as well as at surface.Boiling point: the temperature at which a liquid boils.Condensation: occurs when particles in a gas lose enough thermal energy to form a liquid.
10Solid to gasSublimation: occurs when the surface particles of a solid gain enough energy that they form a gas.During sublimation particles of a solid do not pass through the liquid state as they form a gas.
12Changes of State Melting Vaporization Melting Point Boiling Point SolidLiquidGasFreezingCondensationSublimationDepositionFluidsSolidsLiquidsGases-Crystalline-Amorphous-Surface Tension-Viscosity-Evaporating-Boiling-Particles FixedPacked: Closely Together-Move Freely-Close-Far Apart-Definite Shape-Definite Volume-Undefined shape-Undefined Shape-Undefined Volume
13Section 3: Gas behavior Measuring gases When working with gas, it is helpful to know its volume, temperature, and pressureVolume: the amount of space that matter files.Temperature: the measure of the average energy of random motion of the particles in a substancePressure: force of its outward push divided by the area of the walls of the container
14Pressure and Volume Pressure & Volume Boyle’s Law Inverse T ↑P ↓V Pressure & TemperatureDirectV↑P ↑T↓P ↓TVolume & TemperatureCharles’s LawP↑V ↑T↓V ↓T
17Laws… Boyle`s Law: when pressure decreases, volume increases Charles`s Law: when pressure increases so does volume.
18Section 4: Graphing Gas Behavior First you collect data and then you graph it.After gathering info you record temperature and dataOrigin: a line that passes through all cero pointsVary Inversely: when a graph of two variables forms a kind of curve.Y axis= VolumeX axis =TemperatureTemperature (K)Volume (mL)