32. Liquids Particles in a liquid Liquids are a type of matter that have an undefined shape but definite volume.Particles in a liquidThe particles in a liquid are packed almos as closely as in a solid.Particles are free to move that’s why a liquid has no definite shape. But it has a definite volume.For this reason a liquid is also called a fluid “a substance that flows”
43. Gases B. Properties of liquid Surface Tension is the result of an inward pull among the molecules of a liquid that brings the molecules on the surface closer togetherViscosity is the liquid’s resistance to flowing.3. GasesA gas is a different type of matter; it has an undefined volume and undefined shape.As they move, gas particles spread apart, filling all the space available. Thus, a gas has neither definite shape nor definite volume.
5Changes of State Solid Liquid Gas Melting Vaporization Freezing CondensationMelting PointBoiling PoingSublimation
61. Changes Between Solid and Liquid A. MeltingMelting is the change in state from a solid to a liquidMelting point: the specific point in which melting startsAt its melting point, the particles of a solid substance are vibrating so fast that they break free from their fixed positions.
7B. FreezingFreezing is the change in state from liquid to solidAt its freezing temperature, the particles of a liquid are moving so slowly that they begin to form regular patterns
82. Changes Between Liquid and Gas Vaporization takes place when the particles in liquid gain enough energy to form a gasVaporization is the change from a liquid to a gas.A. EvaporationEvaporation is vaporization that takes place only on the surface of a liquid.B. BoilingBoiling is a different kind of vaporizationC. Boiling Point and Air PressureThe boiling point of a substance depends on the pressure of the air above it.
9D. CondensationCondensation is the opposite of vaporization; the change of state from a gas to liquid.Condensation occurs when particles in a gas lose enough thermal energy to form a liquid.
103. Changes Between Solid and Gas Sublimation is the change of state from a solid directly to a gas.During sublimation, particles of a solid do not pass through the liquid state as they form a gas.
121. Measuring Gases A. Volume B. Temperature When working with a gas, it is helpful to know its volume, temperature, and pressure.A. VolumeVolume is the amount of space that matter fills.B. TemperatureTemperature is a measure of the average energy of random motion of the particles of a substance.
132. Pressure and Volume C. Pressure A. Boyle’s Law The pressure of the gas is the force of its outward push divided by the area of the walls of the container.2. Pressure and VolumeA. Boyle’s LawBoyle found that when the pressure of a gas at constant temperature is increased the volume of the gas decreases. When the pressure is decreased, the volume increases.The relationship between the pressure and the volume of a gas is called Boyle’s law.
143. Pressure and Temperature A. Increasing Temperature Raises PressureWhen the temperature of a gas at constant volume is increased, the pressure of the gas increases. When the temperature is decreased, the pressure of the gas decreases.B. Pressure and Temperature in ActionIn a tire if the pressure of the air inside the tire increases then the tire will burst.4. Volume and TemperatureCharles’s LawCharles found that when the temperature of a gas is increased at constant pressure, its volume increases. When the temperature of a gas is decreased at constant pressure, its volume decreases, this principle is called Charles’s law.
15Graphing Gas Behavior 1. Temperature and Volume A. Collecting DataAlways record the information of your observationB. Graphing the ResultsOring in is the point called (0, 0)When a graph of two variables is a straight line passing through the origin, the variables are said to be directly proportional to each other.The graph of Charles’s law shows that the volume of a gas is directly proportional to its kelvin temperature under constant pressure.
162. Pressure and Volume A. Collecting Data B. Graphing the Results Inferring is important while you are collecting dataB. Graphing the ResultsWhen a graph of two variables forms this kind of curve, the variables are said to vary inversely with one another.The graph for Boyle’s law shows that the pressure of a gas varies inversely with its volume at constant temperature