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Chapter 3 Solids, Liquids, and Gases 8 th Grade Science.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3 Solids, Liquids, and Gases 8 th Grade Science."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 3 Solids, Liquids, and Gases 8 th Grade Science

2 States of Matter Solids, liquids, and gases can be _________, __________, or ___________. _________ - a definite shape and volume – Solids will keep their shape in any position and in any container – Particles of a solid are packed _________together – Particles of a solid ______ slightly – they are in constant motion. – Particles stay in the same position - ________ in place Solid compoundsmixtures elements Closely vibrate

3 Types of Solids _____________ - particles in a regular, repeating pattern. Examples: sugar, salt, and snow. – Cyrstalline solids will _____ at a specific temperature. _______________ - particles are not arranged in a particular pattern. Examples: plastics, rubber, and glass. – Amorphous Solids will _________ at a specific temperature – they may become softer and softer until they change into other substances. Example: butter. Crystalline solids Amorphous solids melt not melt

4 Liquids ______ - a definite volume and takes the shape of its container. - particles of a liquid are packed almost as closely as a solid. -particles move around more _____ than in a solid. - no definite _____ but a definite ________. ______ - freely moving particles. Liquids freely shapevolume Fluid

5 Properties of Liquids ____________ - the result of an inward pull among the particles of a liquid that brings the particles on the surface closer together. – Water particles pull together and bead up on surfaces or form a skin – water striders walk on water due to surface tension ___________ - a liquids resistance to flowing. – Depends on the size and shape of the particles and the attractions between the particles. – Liquids with ______ viscosity flow ______ (honey) Surface Tension viscosity highSlowly

6 Gases ______ - can change volume, particles are spread out and free to move, no definite shape. – Particles of gas move in all directions. – As gas particles move, they fill the space around them – Particles of gas can be squeezed into a container. When the container is open, the particles will move freely and spread out. Gas

7 Changes Between Solid and Liquid Particles of a liquid have more ________ energy than particles of the same substance in solid form. Particles of the same substance as a gas has even more _________ energy than the liquid or solid form. A substance changes state when its thermal energy either _______ or __________ sufficiently. thermal increasesdecreases

8 Melting A change in state from a solid to a liquid involves the ________ in thermal energy. ___________ is the change in state from a solid to a liquid. ___________ - specific temperature at which the melting occurs. At a substances ____________, the particles that are bound together begin to vibrate so rapidly that they break free from their fixed positions. increase Melting Melting point

9 Freezing __________ - the change of state from a liquid to a solid. _________ of melting ____________ - the particles begin to move so slowly that they begin to form a regular pattern. Example: water loses energy – water molecules move slowly because they lose energy until freezing is complete Freezing Reverse Freezing Point

10 Changes between Liquid and Gas ____________ - the change from a liquid to a gas. Particles gain enough _______ to form a gas. ___________ - vaporization that takes place only on the surface of a substance. ________ - vaporization that occurs when a liquid changes to a gas below the surface as well as at the surface of the liquid. Vaporization energy evaporation boiling

11 Boiling Point / Condensation The __________ of a substance depends on the __________ of the air above. The _______ the pressure, the ___ energy needed for the particles to escape into the air. ___________ - opposite of vaporization. Particles in a ___ lose enough energy to form a _____. Boiling point pressure lowerless Condensation Gas liquid

12 Changes between a Solid and a Gas ____________ - surface particles of a solid gain enough energy that they form a gas without passing through the liquid phase. Example: dry ice (aka Sublimation

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