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Małgorzata Siuta, CEEweb for Biodiversity and Olivia Lewis Natura 2000: Benefits and Opportunities for Farmers.

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Presentation on theme: "Małgorzata Siuta, CEEweb for Biodiversity and Olivia Lewis Natura 2000: Benefits and Opportunities for Farmers."— Presentation transcript:

1 Małgorzata Siuta, CEEweb for Biodiversity and Olivia Lewis Natura 2000: Benefits and Opportunities for Farmers

2 HD Art. 6: avoid deterioration of species and habitats: implement conservation measures and prevent damaging activities BD Art. 4: ensure survival and reproduction in the area of distribution EU 2020 Biodiversity Strategy Halt deterioration of ALL species and habitats covered by EU legislation By 2020 twice as many habitats and 1.5 as many species under the HD show improved assessments and 1.5 as many birds under the BH show a secure or improved status Maximise area covered by biodiversity measures under CAP Draft and implement Forest Management Plans for all public and large private forests EU Biodiversity Committments

3 Semi natural livestock systems Low (e.g. due to environmental limitations) intensity arable systems Low intensity permanent crops (e.g. orchards) Mixed systems which suport a mosaic of landscapes and rich biodiversity Farmland in Natura 2000 Natura 2000 Agro- ecosyst ems EU agricultural land Natura 2000

4 Key farmland habitats of community interest Coastal and halophytic habitats Coastal sand dunes and inland dunes Temperate and boreal heath and scrub Sclerophyllous scrub (matorral) Natural and semi-natural grasslands Bogs and fens Rocky habitats Wooded pastures and meadows

5 And species

6 In reality… Conservation status (2001-2006) Red - Unfavourable-Bad Orange - Unfavourable-inadequate Grey - Unknown Green - favourable

7 Main pressures and threats Lack of grazing, hay cutting, shepherding Intensification, over-grazing Mechanisation Fertilisers and lime Herbicides and pesticides Intensification of grassland use or cultivation and conversion to arable Under-burning, over-burning and wildfire damage Changes in hydrology Afforestation Why?

8 What is the EU trying to do about this ?

9 CAP funding for Natura 2000 CAP Pillar 1 European Agricultural Guarantee Fund (EAGF) CAP Pillar 2 European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD) (administered through RDPs) Polluter PaysProvider Gets Direct payments which support the economic viability of low-intensity Natura 2000 farms and farming systems in the face of economic pressures for intensification or abandonment. Key source of funding which supports conservation management of Natura 2000 farmland and the sustainable socio-economic development of the Natura 2000 farming systems and associated local communities.

10 CAP funding for Natura 2000 CAP Pillar 1 (EAGF) CAP Pillar 2 (EAFRD) Green payment: for practices contributing to environmental protection and CC mitigation Permanent grasslands, crop diversification and Ecological Focus Areas Natura 2000 farmers only have to implement the greening practices compatible with Natura 2000 objectives Agri-Environment Climate, Organic, Natura 2000, Areas of Natural Constraints, forestry measures Extended scope of Natura 2000 compensation to cover farmland and/or forest land in other nature protection areas with environmental restrictions which contribute to improve habitat connectivity

11 Greening the CAP

12 CAP Expenditure

13 Agri-Environment Climate Measures in the Visegrad Countries

14 Poland: Overview Agriculture contributes less than 3% GDP … but… 19% of the population employed in agricultural and food industry Mediocre climate and weak soils  extensive, low input agriculture

15 Poland CAP 2007- 2013 Direct payments important in preventing land abandonement, maintaining mosaic rural landscapes that support biodiversity 2007-2013 RDP: budget of 17 billion EUR Pillar 1 financially smaller than Pillar 2 (gets more RD funding than direct payments) Farmers can choose from 9 packages

16 Poland Percentage of agri-environment funding utilised: 55%

17 Poland CAP 2014-2020 Only 7 packages instead of 9: Sustainable agriculture Valuable habitat and threatened bird species on Natura 2000 Valuable habitat and threatened bird species out of Natura 2000 Preserve threatened red plant resources in agriculture Preserve threatened animal genetic resources in agriculture Soil and water protection Buffer zones and boundary strips Fewer options for valuable habitat and threatened bird species (only 6, instead of 10 previously)

18 Hungary: Overview 3% of population in agricultural sector (2010) Dualistic farming structure: very small and very large farms

19 Hungary CAP 2007-2013 2007-2013 RDP: 5.3 billion EUR budget 21 different agri-environmental schemes Targets 25,000 farms/land users (10 000 of which are Natura 2000) = 1.2 million ha


21 Natura 2000 on Agricultural Land 1.9 million ha Natura 2000 (21% of the country) Hungary had largest planned budget for Natura 2000 payments (measure M224) Support for grassland management Uptake of Natura 2000 and WFD payments: 61% Goals: Enhance biodiversity Prevent land abandonment Improve water quality Preserve soil quality Counteract climate change

22 Czech Republic Overview Agriculture contributes 3% of GDP employing 2.8% of the workforce (2005) Majority of farms are large Intensive farming in many areas, few landscape features for wildlife Focus on reducing trade barriers and increasing equal treatment of farmers in the new Member States

23 Czech Republic CAP 2007- 2013 Budget: 3.7 billion EUR Agri-environment payments: 32% of total public expenditure in the program - the measure with the highest allocated budget Applied on 1 168 000 ha (2005) Uptake of funds: 76% Priority: erosion control

24 Agri-Environmental Measures 2007- 2013 Sub-measure A: Environmentally friendly farming methods (20.6% of total area) Scheme A1: Organic farming Scheme A2: Integrated production Sub-measure B: Grassland maintenance (61%) Sub-measure C: Landscape management (18.3%) Scheme C1: Conversion of arable land to grassland Scheme C2: Growing of catch crops Scheme C3: Bio-belts

25 Agri-Environment Schemes 2007- 2013

26 Natura 2000 Payments Support for Natura 2000 areas which are at the same time located in the first zones of National Parks and Protected Landscape Areas 112 EUR/ha of eligible area Compensation of 100% of the income foregone due to reduced production caused by ban on fertilization (only in case of extensively managed grasslands)

27 Slovakia Overview 92% of agricultural area - farms over 100 ha, only 9% of agricultural area farmed by owners (2007) EU budget 2014-2020: Slovakia supports preserving of direct payment as a base of first pillar of CAP, but insists on withdrawing of historical principle

28 Agri- Environmental Measures

29 Slovakia RDP 2007- 2013 RDP 2007-2013: budget 2.6 billion EUR M213: Natura 2000 Payments and Payments Linked to the Water Framework Directive Sub-measure: Natura 2000 payments on agricultural land Paid 95.40 EUR/ha from 2009-2013 for permanent grasslands

30 Agri- environment payments Agri-environment payments (M214) has the third largest budget (15% of the total public expenditure of the programme) Environmentally friendly farming methods Basic scheme Integrated production Organic farming

31 Slovakia RDP 2007-2013 Soil protecting measures Protection against erosion on arable lands Protection against erosion in vineyards Protection against erosion in orchards Grassing of arable land Conservation of biodiversity Protection of biotopes of semi-natural and natural grassland Protection of selected bird species biotopes Breeding and preserving of endangered animal species

32 Conclusion s Farmland biodiversity continues to decline! Underspent budgets Complex policy and payment system Visegrad countries aim: modernisation, competitiveness, withdrawal of the historical principle rather than environmental concerns…

33 Resource s CEEweb’s Rural Development Working Group CEEweb’s Agriculture and Rural Development Page Green Infrastructure Knowledge Hub

34 Thank you! Contact: Malgorzata Siuta +36-1-398-0135

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