Presentation on theme: "Терских Елена и Кокорева Ксения, 3 курс, 2я англ. группа."— Presentation transcript:
Терских Елена и Кокорева Ксения, 3 курс, 2я англ. группа
Linguistic description is often contrasted with linguistic prescription, which is found especially in education and in publishing.linguistic prescriptioneducation Prescription seeks to define standard language forms and give advice on effective language use, and can be thought of as a presentation of the fruits of descriptive research in a learnable form, though it also draws on more subjective aspects of language aesthetics. Prescription and description are complementary, but have different priorities and sometimes are seen to be in conflict.
Phonology (and its theoretical developments, such as the phoneme) deals with the function and interpretation of sound in language. Phonology phoneme Syntax has developed to describe the rules concerning how words relate to each other in order to form sentences. Syntax Lexicology collects "words" and their derivations and transformations: it has not given rise to much generalized theory. Lexicology
A description of the phonology of the language in question.phonology A description of the morphology of words belonging to that language.morphology A description of the syntax of well-formed sentences of that language.syntax A description of lexical derivations. A documentation of the vocabulary, including at least one thousand entries.vocabulary A reproduction of a few genuine texts.
When studying morphemes, we should distinguish morphemes as generalized lingual units from their concrete manifestations, or variants in specific textual environments; variants of morphemes are called “allo- morphs”. The so-called allo-emic theory was developed in phonetics: in phonetics, phonemes, as the generalized, invariant phonological units, are distinguished from their concrete realizations, the allophones.
The “allo-emic theory” in the study of morphemes was also developed within the framework of Descriptive Linguistics by means of the so-called distributional analysis. The following three types of distribution are established: contrastive distribution, non-contrastive distribution and complementary distribution.
The morphs are said to be in contrastive distribution if they express different meanings in identical environments the compared morphs The morphs are said to be in non-contrastive distribution if they express identical meaning in identical environments; such morphs constitute ‘free variants’ of the same morpheme The morphs are said to be in complementary distribution if they express identical meanings in different environments
In Descriptive Linguistics distributional morpheme types are distinguished; they immediately correlate with each other in the following pairs. Free morphemes, which can build up words by themselves, are opposed to bound morphemes, used only as parts of words; e.g.: in the word ‘hands’ hand- is a free morpheme and -s is a bound morpheme. Overt and covert morphemes are opposed to each other: the latter shows the meaningful absence of a morpheme distinguished in the opposition of grammatical forms in paradigms; it is also known as the “zero morpheme”.
Full or meaningful morphemes are opposed to empty morphemes, which have no meaning and are left after singling out the meaningful morphemes Segmental morphemes, consisting of phonemes, are opposed to supra-segmental morphemes, which leave the phonemic content of the word unchanged, but the meaning of the word is specified with the help of various supra-segmental lingual units
Additive morphemes, which are freely combined in a word, e.g.: look+ed, small+er, are opposed to replacive morphemes, or root morphemes, which replace each other in paradigms, e.g.: sing -sang – sung. Continuous morphemes, combined with each other in the same word, e.g.: worked, are opposed to discontinuous morphemes, which consist of two components used jointly to build the analytical forms of the words, e.g.: have worked, is working.
M.Y.Blokh “A Course in Theoretical English grammar” B.Ilyish “The structure of modern English”