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Gliding Scholarship Exercise 4 EFFECTS OF CONTROLS 1 CFS Gliding Examiners © 2008.

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Presentation on theme: "Gliding Scholarship Exercise 4 EFFECTS OF CONTROLS 1 CFS Gliding Examiners © 2008."— Presentation transcript:

1 Gliding Scholarship Exercise 4 EFFECTS OF CONTROLS 1 CFS Gliding Examiners © 2008

2 Gliding Scholarship To select the datum attitude using co-ordinated controls AIM

3 Gliding Scholarship 1.Lookout 2.Handing over and taking over control 3.Following through and relaxing AIRMANSHIP

4 Gliding Scholarship 1.Lookout LOOKOUT If you see an aircraft before your instructor does, use the Clock Code to tell him where it is…

5 Gliding Scholarship LOOKOUT The Clock Code Imagine you are at the centre of the dial and 12 o’clock is straight ahead

6 Gliding Scholarship “Aircraft left 11 o'clock high”

7 Gliding Scholarship “Aircraft right one o'clock level”

8 Gliding Scholarship TAKING OVER CONTROL If your instructor wishes to give you control, he will say: “You have control” Put your hands and feet lightly on the controls and say: What do you do? “I have control, sir”

9 Gliding Scholarship ING OVER CONTROL If your instructor wishes to take over control, he will say: “I have control” Take your hands and feet off the controls and say: What do you do? “You have control, sir” TAKHAND

10 Gliding Scholarship FOLLOWING THROUGH If your instructor wants you to follow through, he will say: “Follow me through” Put your hands and feet lightly on the controls and say: What do you do? “Following through, sir”

11 Gliding Scholarship RELAXING If your instructor wants you to relax, he will say: “Relax” Take your hands and feet off the controls and say: What do you do? “Relaxed, sir”

12 Gliding Scholarship THE DATUM ATTITUDE

13 Gliding Scholarship THE DATUM ATTITUDE Note distance below horizon

14 Gliding Scholarship THE DATUM ATTITUDE Instrument panel is parallel to horizon

15 Gliding Scholarship THE DATUM ATTITUDE Airspeed is stable Here are some more attitudes you will see…

16 Gliding Scholarship THE BANKED ATTITUDE

17 THE APPROACH ATTITUDETHE BANKED ATTITUDE

18 STABILITY The aircraft is stable and will maintain the attitude with no control input needed

19 Gliding Scholarship AIRCRAFT AXES Lateral axis

20 Gliding Scholarship AIRCRAFT AXES Lateral axis The aircraft PITCHES about the lateral axis

21 Gliding Scholarship AIRCRAFT AXES Longitudinal axis

22 Gliding Scholarship Longitudinal axis AIRCRAFT AXES The aircraft ROLLS about the longitudinal axis

23 Gliding Scholarship AIRCRAFT AXES Vertical axis

24 Gliding Scholarship AIRCRAFT AXES Vertical axis The aircraft YAWS about the vertical axis

25 Gliding Scholarship PRIMARY EFFECTS OF THE CONTROLS ELEVATORS

26 Gliding Scholarship ELEVATORS

27 Gliding Scholarship …the elevators move down ELEVATORS When you move the control column forward…

28 Gliding Scholarship The aircraft starts to pitch nose down… ELEVATORS

29 Gliding Scholarship …and continues to pitch until the control column is returned to the neutral position ELEVATORS

30 Gliding Scholarship Likewise, if you move the control column back… …the elevators move up… …and the aircraft pitches nose up until you return the control column to the neutral position ELEVATORS

31 Gliding Scholarship PRIMARY EFFECTS OF THE CONTROLS AILERONS

32 Gliding Scholarship AILERONS

33 Gliding Scholarship AILERONS When you move the control column to the right… …the left aileron moves down and the right aileron moves up

34 Gliding Scholarship AILERONS The aircraft starts to roll to the right… …and continues to roll until the control column is returned to the neutral position

35 Gliding Scholarship Likewise, if you move the control column to the left… …the left aileron moves up and the right aileron moves down … …and the aircraft rolls to the left until you return the control column to the neutral position AILERONS

36 Gliding Scholarship PRIMARY EFFECTS OF THE CONTROLS RUDDER

37 Gliding Scholarship RUDDER

38 Gliding Scholarship RUDDER When you push the right rudder pedal forwards… …the rudder moves to the right…

39 Gliding Scholarship RUDDER …and the aircraft yaws to the right

40 Gliding Scholarship RUDDER the slip ball moves left to indicate unbalanced flight As the aircraft yaws right,

41 Gliding Scholarship RUDDER push the left pedal forwards until the slip ball is central To restore balanced flight,

42 Gliding Scholarship If the ball is outside the ‘goalposts’… …push the appropriate pedal forwards (right pedal if the ball is out to the right)… …until the ball is back in the centre In balanced flight, note that the rudder pedals are not necessarily centred

43 Gliding Scholarship EFFECTS OF CONTROLS IN A BANKED ATTITUDE

44 Gliding Scholarship EFFECTS OF CONTROLS IN A BANKED ATTITUDE An aircraft always manoeuvres about its axes… Lateral axis Vertical axis If the aircraft is banked, so are its axes

45 Gliding Scholarship EFFECTS OF CONTROLS IN A BANKED ATTITUDE So in a level attitude, this is pitch…

46 Gliding Scholarship EFFECTS OF CONTROLS IN A BANKED ATTITUDE So in a level attitude, this is pitch… …and this is yaw

47 Gliding Scholarship EFFECTS OF CONTROLS IN A BANKED ATTITUDE But in a banked attitude, this is pitch…

48 Gliding Scholarship EFFECTS OF CONTROLS IN A BANKED ATTITUDE In a banked attitude, this is pitch… …and this is yaw

49 Gliding Scholarship PROPORTIONAL RESPONSE The rate at which the aircraft responds depends on how much you deflect the controls

50 Gliding Scholarship PROPORTIONAL RESPONSE So if you deflect the ailerons a small amount…

51 Gliding Scholarship PROPORTIONAL RESPONSE …the aircraft rolls slowly

52 Gliding Scholarship PROPORTIONAL RESPONSE And if you deflect the ailerons a large amount…

53 Gliding Scholarship PROPORTIONAL RESPONSE …the aircraft rolls quickly

54 Gliding Scholarship PROPORTIONAL RESPONSE The same applies to the elevator and rudder: Remember, the rate at which the aircraft responds depends on how much you deflect the controls, not on how quickly you deflect them

55 Gliding Scholarship EFFECT OF SPEED The rate at which the aircraft responds also depends on the airspeed

56 Gliding Scholarship EFFECT OF SPEED For the same control deflection: At low speed, controls feel and response is At high speed, controls feel and response is s l o p p y s l u g g i s h firm crisp

57 Gliding Scholarship ADVERSE YAW

58 Gliding Scholarship ADVERSE YAW When you deflect the ailerons… …lift on this wing increases… …and lift on this wing reduces

59 Gliding Scholarship ADVERSE YAW …causing the aircraft to roll

60 Gliding Scholarship ADVERSE YAW However, more lift means more drag… …so the aircraft also yaws

61 Gliding Scholarship ADVERSE YAW …and can be prevented by applying rudder in the same direction as aileron Because the aircraft yaws left when you want to roll right, it is called ADVERSE YAW…

62 Gliding Scholarship ADVERSE YAW So whenever you want to roll, you must apply rudder at the same time as you apply the ailerons… This is called CO-ORDINATED CONTROLS …in the same direction… …and by just the right amount to prevent adverse yaw

63 Gliding Scholarship SELECTING THE DATUM ATTITUDE To select the datum attitude…

64 Gliding Scholarship To select the datum attitude… SELECTING THE DATUM ATTITUDE …first roll wings level using co-ordinated controls

65 Gliding Scholarship To select the datum attitude… SELECTING THE DATUM ATTITUDE …first roll wings level using co-ordinated controls then pitch to the datum attitude using elevator

66 Gliding Scholarship THE END ? Any Questions

67 Gliding Scholarship Crown Copyright 2008 No Part of this presentation may be reproduced without the permission of the issuing authority. The views expressed in this presentation do not necessarily reflect the views or policy of the MOD. C


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