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Environmental Management and DRR in Indian Context Prof. Vinod K. Sharma Sr. Professor, Disaster Management, Indian Institute of Public Administration,

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Presentation on theme: "Environmental Management and DRR in Indian Context Prof. Vinod K. Sharma Sr. Professor, Disaster Management, Indian Institute of Public Administration,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Environmental Management and DRR in Indian Context Prof. Vinod K. Sharma Sr. Professor, Disaster Management, Indian Institute of Public Administration, and Executive Vice-Chair, Sikkim State Disaster Management Authority

2 Some National Initiatives  The National Disaster Management Act-2005  National Disaster Management Authority-2005  National Action Plan on Climate Change  Many states taking up initiatives: Acts, Authorities, Plans, Capacity Building (Leading states: Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Bihar Sikkim)  District level empowerment  Local level participation and action

3 India’s Vulnerability   Floods   Droughts   Earthquakes   Landslides   Cyclones   Forest Fire   Cloud Burst   Hail storms

4 Major Natural Disasters : 1990 - 2012 Earthquake, Gujarat January 26, 2001 1997 Chamoli 1999 KutchchhEarthquakes Uttarkashi 1991 Latur (Killari)1993 Jabalpur, Gujarat 2001 J&K2005 Cyclones East & West Godavari1992& dist.of Andhra Pradesh 1996 Kutchchh, Gujarat 1998 Orissa 1999 Floods Punjab 1993 Kerala1994 Punjab & Haryana1996 Mumbai2005 Tsunami Andaman & Nicobar Islands & coastal areas2004 Tsunami Dec.26, 2004 Earthquake, J&K Oct.8, 2005

5 Scientific initiatives in DRR   Vulnerability Atlas for each major hazard was prepared   High Powered Committee was set up by the Prime Minister in 1999   Focus was on Preparedness, Planning and Mitigation   National, State and District level authorities were prepared   Disaster Management Act came to force in 2005

6 Floods Floods in the Indo-Gangetic- Brahmaputra plains are an annual feature On an average, a few hundred lives are lost Millions are rendered homeless Lakhs of hectares of crops are damaged every year

7 Case Studies   Mumbai 2005   Surat Flood 2006   Rajasthan Flood 2006, 2008, 2012   Uttarakhand Floods 2013

8 Wind and Cyclones During the Period 1877-2005 in a 50 km wide strip following cyclonic activity have taken place: 283 cyclones (106 severe) on the East Coast 35 cyclones (19 severe) on West Coast In the 19 severe cyclonic storms, death toll > 10,000 lives In 21 cyclones in Bay of Bengal (India and Bangladesh) 1.25 million lives have been lost

9 Orissa Cyclone 26-29 October, 1999

10 Earthquakes 10.79% land is liable to severe earthquakes (intensity MSK IX or more) 17.49% land is liable to MSK VIII (similar to Latur/Uttarkashi) 30.79% land is liable to MSK VII (similar to Jabalpur earthquake) Biggest quakes in Andamans, Kuchh, Himachal, Kashmir, Bihar and the North Eastern States)

11 Sikkim

12 Brief information on Sikkim ParameterValue GEOGRAPHICAL AREA7096 Sq.KM. POPULATION (2011 CENCUS) 6.07 LAKHS DISTRICTS04 (EAST, WEST, NORTH & SOUTH) MAIN DRAINAGESTISTA, RANGEET & ITS TRIBUTARIES FOREST COVER43% of the total area. GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION 27 0 00’46” to 28 0 07’48” N latitude & 88 0 00’58” to 88 0 55’25” E Longitude ECONOMYMAINLY TOURISM, CASH CROPS, HYDEL POWER PROJECT LITERACY RATE(2001 CENSUS) 82%

13 Earthquake details ParameterValue Magnitude6.8 Date-Time18:10 IST, 18 th Sept, 2011, Sunday Location27.72°N, 88.06°E Depth19.7 km (shallow depth) Duration30-40 seconds Extent In India, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and China In India, in Sikkim and northeast, West Bengal, Bihar, Jharkhand, UP, Rajasthan, Chandigarh and Delhi Source: USGS / IMD

14 Sikkim After Earthquake 2011  Sikkim State Disaster Management Authority Established  Significant progress since Sikkim-Nepal Earthquake of September 2011  Environment-Disaster Link: India’s first fully ORGANIC STATE and preparing for disasters  Establishing Himalayan Institute of Environment and Disaster Management  Taking community based approach, involving schools, voluntary organisations, local leaders

15 Landslides The Indian Subcontinent with diverse physiographic, seismotectonic and climatologic conditions is subjected to varying degree of landslide hazards. The himalayas including Northeastern mountain regions being the worst affected followed by a section of the Western Ghats, Eastern Ghats and Vindhyas. Accounts for considerable loss of life and damage to communication routes, human settlements, agricultural fields and forest lands.



18 Recent Trends and Concerns  Unusual and unexpected weather events –Heavy rain –Early or delayed rain –Hail, snow –Unseasonal windstorms –Excessive heat –Excessive cold  Resultant change in water and crop patterns

19 Direct Impact on Coastal Areas  Rise in sea level – loss of coastal lands and small islands –Relevance to all coastal areas –Islands along coastal states (Eg. Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal) –A&N Islands –Lakshadweep Islands

20 Direct Impact on All Areas  Increased frequency, increased severity, and less predictability of : –Storms –Floods –Flash floods –Cloud bursts –Rain caused landslides –Snow fall –Heat waves

21 Current Trends to watch  Increased cloud bursts in Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand and J&K (2010 flashfloods), and Sikkim in 2012, Uttarakhand 2013  Rising temperature trends in Orissa (Talcher 52 degrees Celsius)  Freak floods in drought prone Rajasthan  Drought in flood prone Assam  Glacier depletion along Himalayan Belt  Crop failure due to rainfall variations  Increased migration to large cities in search for work

22 Trends to Expect in Future  Increased flooding and droughts due to rainfall variations  Increased flooding for some years due to snow melt  Droughts after some year due to depleting water sources  Severe cyclones, specially in WB, Orissa, AP, TN, Gujarat  Crop failures, depletion in fish catch

23 Who is at Risk?  Particularly the poor  Inhabitants of towns and villages in fragile ecosystems (mountains, coasts, arid areas..)  Farming communities dependent on rainfed agriculture  Hill communities dependent on natural water sources  Megacities with high water demand

24 What can be done to stop the trend  Reduce glasshouse gas emissions: –Clean technologies in industries –Improved refrigeration and transportation systems  Reduce energy consumption at all levels –Switch to greener energy sources –Reduce energy consumption through efficiency and austerity –Adopt renewable energy sources in disaggregated manner –Invest in improvement of technologies and their dissemination

25 Climate Change Adaptation  Adaptive Agriculture –Switch to crops that can yield within changed durations of rainfall season  Adaptive Water Management –Manage water sources and increase water harvesting and water recycling at local level  Adaptive Settlements –Plan cities and villages to be away from path of predictable disasters –Go Green

26 Prevailing Planning Practice  prescriptive Land-use zoning (20 year horizon)  disaster prone and environmentally sensitive areas are declared unsuitable for development, but economic pressures prevail

27 Human Settlements - this is not what we had planned !  Local informal economies  pressure in centrally located vacant land zUnhealthy villages and cities zSevere environmental degradation

28 Compounded risks  DISASTER - annual ritual  Illegal settlements… cannot be recognized or catered to zInformal settlements represent a vast human population living in temporary and unsafe structures with little or no facilities……

29 Even hazards of low intensity attain disastrous proportions when they strike such vulnerable communities and degraded environments and degraded environments

30 Disaster-Environment Impact Matrix AirWaterLandCropsWildlifeLivestockForestsWaste FloodSDDDDDDD CycloneDDDDDDDD DroughtIDDDDDDI Earthquake S, C I, C I--LD--D Landslide--SD--I--DD ChemicalDDDD D, C D D NuclearD D, S D DD D, L D BiologicalS D, C SCCCCD CivilCC C, I --------C TransportCCCL------D D=Direct, I=Indirect, S=Secondary, L=Less, C=Case specific

31 From sectoral to holistic planning Concerned agencies Concerned agencies& Communities Communities

32 Disaster Risk Management Disaster Risk Management Disaster Management Vehicle COMMAND Preventio n Vulnerability Reduction Hazard / Risk Reduction RISK MANAGEMENT EMERGENCY RESPONSE Operation centric Emergency Risk Assessment Mitigation Monitorin g Evaluation ENVIRONMENT community Planning Response Relief Rehabilitatio n Reconstruction Preparedness Planning Governance Management centric

33 Concept of Disaster Risk Reduction Risk Reduction:  Event minimization  Loss minimization  Quick recovery (Resilience) Approach:  Visualizing hazards  Reducing vulnerability  Increasing coping capacities

34 DM Paradigm Shift  Response Centric  Relief Centric –Mitigation centric –Preparedness centric –Disaster Centric  Hazard Centric  Vulnerability Centric  Environment Centric Adaptation

35 DRR Strategy Design – Components  What is the risk hazard - event x damageability  What is at risk –– Life, Structures, Resources, Infrastructure  Resist  Resilience –Avoid –Tolerate –Manage  Programmes –Direct –Indirect –Infused

36 Effects Waste Coral Reef Damages Coastal Zone Impacts Ground water contamination Siltationissue Effect on agriculture land Effects Waste Coral Reef Damages Coastal Zone Impacts Ground water contamination Siltationissue Effect on agriculture land Causes Immediate/ Long-term Population De-forestation High Consumption Climate Change Causes Immediate/ Long-term Population De-forestation High Consumption Climate Change Causes Effects Causes Effects The Environment cause-effect cycle Building disaster capacity Reduced through multi-stakeholder cooperation Reduced through awareness, policies & action

37 Environ-disaster interface Environmental Hazards Complex Population Growth Losses Poverty Low coping capacity High Exposure to Hazard Locations High Disaster Risk Hazard / Trigger event Major Disaster Losses Source: 2008(5) Publication

38 IMPACTS OF DISASTERS  Physical (buildings, structures, physical property, industry, roads, bridges, etc.)  Environmental (water, land/soil, land-use, landscape, crops, lake/rivers / estuaries, aquaculture, forests, animals/livestock, wildlife, atmosphere, energy, etc.)  Social (life, health, employment, relations, security, peace, etc.)  Economic (assets, deposits, reserves, income, commerce, production, guarantee/insurance, etc.) PhysicalEnvironmental Disaster Event SOCIAL Economic

39 DRR Interventions - Routes  Direct : DM Act, Rules, Policy…  DM Programmes – NCRM, Capacity building programme of Engineers/Architects  Environmental Resources:  Land/soil/land-use  Water/water bodies, watersheds  Wetlands, Rivers  Air/atmosphere  Habitat/vegetation-forests, plantation, orchards, agriculture - agroforestry, aquaculture  Livestock, wild animals  Environmental supplies – water, PHE, sanitation, waste mgmt,  Chemicals / minerals  Welfare programmes  Family, child, youth, sports, NREGS, RTI, ….  Service programmes  Transport, health, communication, housing, aviation, navigation, fire, industry

40 Rural Environmental Programme KEY ISSUES:  All rural programmes  Natural Resources  Land  Water  Energy  Vegetation –Agriculture –Forestry –Horticulture –Aquaculture  Animals –Fisheries –Livestock –Wildlife  Env. Health –Sanitation –Supplies

41 Climate Change Impacts  Climate change is considered as an environmental phenomena.  Climate change impacts are seen in the form of natural disasters like drought, flood etc.  Livelihoods of the rural communities are directly affected by the climate change impacts  Adaptation to climate change is becoming increasingly recognized as the key issue (as opposed to mitigation), and it is considered as the pre-disaster preparedness measures.

42 When people plan...  Participatory appraisals and stakeholder sensitization zCommunity Action Planning - bottoms up! zLocal action oriented

43 For a safer tomorrow..  Preventing mushrooming of NEW development projects and settlements in environmentally sensitive areas  Reducing socio-economic inequalities in the population and providing for safe & healthy living  Adopting conservation and development in an ECOSYSTEM SENSITIVE manner  Prevention Pays…!!

44 New Challenges   Multiple agencies working in DRR and Environment – –Ministry of Environment and Forests – –Ministry of Home affairs – –National Disaster management Authority – –Ministry of Science and Technology – –Ministry of Agriculture – –Ministry of Water Resources – –Planning Commission of India   University research is not linked with development planning

45 Thank You!

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