Presentation on theme: "Strategy to Address Distress Migration and Climate Change Nabaghan Ojha, India Odisha Modernizing Economy, Governance and Administration Programme (OMEGA)"— Presentation transcript:
Strategy to Address Distress Migration and Climate Change Nabaghan Ojha, India Odisha Modernizing Economy, Governance and Administration Programme (OMEGA) A DFID UK and Government of Odisha Partnership Programme 16 th - 18 th July 2013
OMEGA Programme Sustainable reduction of poverty Greater economic opportunities for people Ensure climate resilient works at the ground More access of rural communities to employment programme A Government of Orissa and DFID Initiative Objectives of the programme
ODISHA Climatic disorders in India Biggest disaster in Uttarakhand
No of events 431 No of people killed: 143,039 Average killed per year: 4,614 No of people affected: 1,521,726,127 Average affected per year: 49,087,940 Economic Damage (US$ X 1,000): 48,063,830 Economic Damage per year (US$ X 1,000): 1,550,446 Source: Disaster Prevention Web  Climatic Disasters from 1980 – 2010-An Overview India, due to its physio- geographic conditions, is one of the most disaster prone countries in the world, exposed to different kinds of natural hazards. The Orissa Super Cyclone (1999) claimed thousands and thousands of human lives devastating agricultural crops and rendering lakhs and lakhs of people homeless.
Impact of climate change?? About 700 million Indians living in rural areas directly depend on climate-sensitive sectors like agriculture, forests and fisheries and natural resources such as water, biodiversity, mangroves, coastal zones etc. The Indian Government's National Communications (NATCOM) report identifies the following as the impacts of climate change most likely to affect India between now and 2100: Decreased snow cover will affect snow-fed and glacial systems Erratic monsoons will affect India’s rainfed agriculture, peninsular rivers, water and power supply, Wheat production will drop by 4-5 million tonnes, even with a rise in temperature of only 1ºC. Floods will increase in frequency and intensity. This will heighten the vulnerability of people in the country's coastal, arid and semi-arid zones. Over 50% of India’s forests are likely to experience shift in forest types, adversely impacting associated biodiversity, regional climate dynamics and livelihoods based on forest products
Migration: one of the coping strategies About 0.2 million people migrate from Western Odisha to Andhra Pradesh alone to work in brick kilns (UNDP paper “Migration and Human Development’ 2009)
MGNREGA “ A Landmark Legislation towards National Livelihoods Safety Net” Largest employment programme in human history At least 100 days of guaranteed wage employment in a financial year to every household whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work. Creation of durable assets by management of natural resources. Prevention of distress migration.
Nature of works Water Conservation and water harvesting related works; Drought Proofing including plantation and afforestation; Irrigation canals including micro and minor irrigation works; Provision of irrigation facility, dug out farm pond, horticulture, plantation, farm bunding and land development; Renovation of traditional water bodies including desilting of tanks; Land Development; Wage payment Rs 143 (about 3 USD) per day for unskilled work per labour within 15 days of work (In Odisha) Key provisions of MGNREGS
The pilot 2100 families prone to distress migration Quick assessment Massive deforestation destroying the livelihoods of the local people Small land holdings/ rainfed agriculture; droughts; indebtedness; lack of employment during lean season; lack of social security/food security; depletion of natural resource base.
Migration trend Source: Study done in 2012 by Aide et Action for ILO
The Strategy- for assured employment
The strategy- How to assure?? Assured employment Choice of livelihood Open more works Timely employment Timely payment
Climate resilient assets
Pilot results Increased access of migrant families to MGNREGS. Average persondays increased significantly. More number of HHs completed 100 days of works. About 50 per cent of families retained.
Key learning When there are choices of livelihoods people don’t migrate. Land development and water related works contribute directly and/or indirectly to increasing crop production as well as reducing the risk of crop failure. The works created have the potential to generate environmental benefits such as ground water recharge, soil, water and biodiversity conservation, Sustaining food production, halting land degradation and building resilience to current climate risks such as moisture stress, delayed rainfall, droughts and floods.
The future State government decided to provide 150 days of employment in a year (additional 50 days). Government scaled up the project in entire Western Odisha. More focus on creation of climate resilient works.