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Strategy to Address Distress Migration and Climate Change Nabaghan Ojha, India Odisha Modernizing Economy, Governance and Administration Programme (OMEGA)

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Presentation on theme: "Strategy to Address Distress Migration and Climate Change Nabaghan Ojha, India Odisha Modernizing Economy, Governance and Administration Programme (OMEGA)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Strategy to Address Distress Migration and Climate Change Nabaghan Ojha, India Odisha Modernizing Economy, Governance and Administration Programme (OMEGA) A DFID UK and Government of Odisha Partnership Programme 16 th - 18 th July 2013

2 OMEGA Programme Sustainable reduction of poverty Greater economic opportunities for people Ensure climate resilient works at the ground More access of rural communities to employment programme A Government of Orissa and DFID Initiative Objectives of the programme

3 ODISHA Climatic disorders in India Biggest disaster in Uttarakhand

4 No of events 431 No of people killed: 143,039 Average killed per year: 4,614 No of people affected: 1,521,726,127 Average affected per year: 49,087,940 Economic Damage (US$ X 1,000): 48,063,830 Economic Damage per year (US$ X 1,000): 1,550,446 Source: Disaster Prevention Web [32] Climatic Disasters from 1980 – 2010-An Overview  India, due to its physio- geographic conditions, is one of the most disaster prone countries in the world, exposed to different kinds of natural hazards.  The Orissa Super Cyclone (1999) claimed thousands and thousands of human lives devastating agricultural crops and rendering lakhs and lakhs of people homeless.

5 Impact of climate change??  About 700 million Indians living in rural areas directly depend on climate-sensitive sectors like agriculture, forests and fisheries and natural resources such as water, biodiversity, mangroves, coastal zones etc.  The Indian Government's National Communications (NATCOM) report identifies the following as the impacts of climate change most likely to affect India between now and 2100:  Decreased snow cover will affect snow-fed and glacial systems  Erratic monsoons will affect India’s rainfed agriculture, peninsular rivers, water and power supply,  Wheat production will drop by 4-5 million tonnes, even with a rise in temperature of only 1ºC.  Floods will increase in frequency and intensity. This will heighten the vulnerability of people in the country's coastal, arid and semi-arid zones.  Over 50% of India’s forests are likely to experience shift in forest types, adversely impacting associated biodiversity, regional climate dynamics and livelihoods based on forest products

6 Migration: one of the coping strategies  About 0.2 million people migrate from Western Odisha to Andhra Pradesh alone to work in brick kilns (UNDP paper “Migration and Human Development’ 2009)

7 MGNREGA “ A Landmark Legislation towards National Livelihoods Safety Net” Largest employment programme in human history At least 100 days of guaranteed wage employment in a financial year to every household whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work. Creation of durable assets by management of natural resources. Prevention of distress migration.

8 Nature of works  Water Conservation and water harvesting related works;  Drought Proofing including plantation and afforestation;  Irrigation canals including micro and minor irrigation works;  Provision of irrigation facility, dug out farm pond, horticulture, plantation, farm bunding and land development;  Renovation of traditional water bodies including desilting of tanks;  Land Development; Wage payment  Rs 143 (about 3 USD) per day for unskilled work per labour within 15 days of work (In Odisha) Key provisions of MGNREGS

9 The pilot  2100 families prone to distress migration Quick assessment  Massive deforestation destroying the livelihoods of the local people  Small land holdings/ rainfed agriculture;  droughts; indebtedness;  lack of employment during lean season;  lack of social security/food security;  depletion of natural resource base.

10 Migration trend Source: Study done in 2012 by Aide et Action for ILO

11 The Strategy- for assured employment

12 The strategy- How to assure?? Assured employment Choice of livelihood Open more works Timely employment Timely payment

13 Climate resilient assets

14 Pilot results  Increased access of migrant families to MGNREGS.  Average persondays increased significantly.  More number of HHs completed 100 days of works.  About 50 per cent of families retained.

15 Key learning  When there are choices of livelihoods people don’t migrate.  Land development and water related works contribute directly and/or indirectly to increasing crop production as well as reducing the risk of crop failure.  The works created have the potential to generate environmental benefits such as  ground water recharge,  soil, water and biodiversity conservation,  Sustaining food production,  halting land degradation and building resilience to current climate risks such as moisture stress, delayed rainfall, droughts and floods.

16 The future  State government decided to provide 150 days of employment in a year (additional 50 days).  Government scaled up the project in entire Western Odisha.  More focus on creation of climate resilient works.

17 Discussions Thank You


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