4 Respiratory system Lower Respiratory System Larynx Trachea Bronchi Lungs
5 Nasal bonesFrontal and nasal bones form the nasal bridge and processes of the maxillae make up the lateral walls.Nasal septum divides the nasal cavity into right and left halves formed by vomer and perpendicular plate of the ethmoid
6 UvulaDuring swallowing, the soft palate elevates and the uvula closes off the internal nares, preventing food or fluids from entering the nasal cavity.
8 Nasal Cavity Superior Middle & Inferior Turbinates or Chonchae Opening of Auditory TubeExternal Nares
9 Nasal CavityThe nasal epithelium covering the conchae serves to cleanse, warm and humidify the airNasal conchae increase the surface areas for the mucus epitheliumThe olfactory epithelium in the upper medial part of the nasal cavity is involved in the sense of smell.The nasal cavity serves as a resonating chamber as well as an avenue for escaping air.
10 Nasal Turbinates or Conchae Ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium with goblet cells pushes trapped dust toward the back of the throat to be swallowed..
19 Inside the Larynx Vestibular Folds: Vocal Cords, or vocal folds Also called false vocal cords, ventricular band of larynx, ventricular folds, and upper foldsVocal Cords, or vocal foldsLower, “true” vocal cordsAttach to the arytenoid cartilages by the vocal ligaments (internal)Glottis: The vocal cords and the space (rima glottidis) between them.
21 Inside the Larynx Corniculate cartilage Cuneiform cartilage Rima GlottisTrue Vocal CordsGlottisEpiglottisTongue
22 Glottis: True cords plus opening Rima Glottis: The opening
23 Airways Larynx Trachea Right Mainstem Bronchi Left Mainstem Bronchi The carina is the last cartilage which separates the entrances to the left and right primary bronchiSecondary BronchiCarinaSecondary Bronchi
24 BronchiThe carina of the last tracheal cartilage marks the end of the trachea and the beginning of the right and left bronchiLeft main stem bronchusRight main stem bronchusBronchi subdivide into secondary bronchi, each supplying a lobe of the lungs
26 Branching of Bronchial Tree TracheaPrimary BronchiSecondary BronchiTertiary BronchiBronchiolesTerminal/Respiratory Bronchioles
27 Lungs Apex: the part under the clavicle Base: the part touching the diaphragmCostal Surface: the part touching the ribsHilus: indentation containing pulmonary and systemic blood vesselsLeft Lung has 2 lobes and a cardiac notchLeft upper lobeLeft lower lobeRight Lung has 3 lobesRight upper lobe, middle lobe, lower lobe
31 Pleura Pleura is the double-layered sac of serous membrane Parietal Pleura is the outer layer and is attached to the thoracic wallsVisceral Pleura is the inner layer covering the lung tissueThe layers are only touching, they are not fused togetherThe potential space is called the pleural cavityThere is serous fluid between the layers which allows them to slide against each other during breathing
33 Mediastinum The area between the lungs. Posterior to the sternum Anterior to the vertebraeContains the heart, great vessels, esophagus and thymus
34 Trachea Histology Composed of three layers Mucosa: made up of goblet cells and ciliated pseudostratified columnar epitheliumSubmucosa: connective tissue deep to the mucosaAdventitia: outermost layer, has C-shaped rings of hyaline cartilage
39 Trachea Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium Submucosa with seromucous glandsHyaline Cartilage
40 Bronchi Bronchioles Tissue walls of bronchi mimic that of the trachea As conducting tubes become smaller, structural changes occur and eventually they become bronchiolesCartilage support structures changeBronchioles differ from bronchi in that they lack cartilageEpithelium types changeAmount of smooth muscle increases
49 Respiratory MembraneThe area where gas exchange between air and blood occursIt is the fused alveolar and capillary walls (3 layers)Squamous type 1 alveolar epitheliumFused basal laminaeSquamous endothelial cells in pulmonary capillaries