Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Anatomy of the Respiratory System

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Anatomy of the Respiratory System"— Presentation transcript:

1 Anatomy of the Respiratory System
Lab Exercise 24 Anatomy of the Respiratory System Portland Community College BI 233

2 Introduction Provides oxygen to the cells of the body and removes carbon dioxide

3 Upper & Lower Respiratory System
Upper Respiratory System Nose Nasal cavity Paranasal sinuses Pharynx

4 Respiratory system Lower Respiratory System Larynx Trachea Bronchi

5 Nasal bones Frontal and nasal bones form the nasal bridge and processes of the maxillae make up the lateral walls. Nasal septum divides the nasal cavity into right and left halves formed by vomer and perpendicular plate of the ethmoid

6 Uvula During swallowing, the soft palate elevates and the uvula closes off the internal nares, preventing food or fluids from entering the nasal cavity.

7 Nasal Cavity

8 Nasal Cavity Superior Middle & Inferior Turbinates or Chonchae
Opening of Auditory Tube External Nares

9 Nasal Cavity The nasal epithelium covering the conchae serves to cleanse, warm and humidify the air Nasal conchae increase the surface areas for the mucus epithelium The olfactory epithelium in the upper medial part of the nasal cavity is involved in the sense of smell. The nasal cavity serves as a resonating chamber as well as an avenue for escaping air.

10 Nasal Turbinates or Conchae
Ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium with goblet cells pushes trapped dust toward the back of the throat to be swallowed. .


12 Sinuses All the sinuses are continuous with the nasal cavity are lined by mucous membrane. Mucous secretions drain into the nasal cavities.

13 Pharynx Connects the nasal and oral cavities to the larynx and esophagus Anatomically divided into 3 sections: Nasopharynx Oropharynx Laryngopharynx

14 Pharynx

15 Tonsils Pharyngeal Tonsils (Adenoids) Palatine Tonsils Lingual Tonsils

16 Tonsils Pharyngeal tonsils Tonsils: lymphoid tissue. Palatine tonsils

17 Larynx: aka Voice Box Made of 9 pieces of cartilage, the most important are: Thyroid cartilage (Adam’s Apple) Thyrohyoid membrane Cricoid Cartilage Cricothyroid ligament Epiglottis

18 Larynx Hyoid Bone Thyrohyoid Membrane Epiglottis Thyrohyoid ligament
Thyroid Cartilage Cricothyroid Ligament Cricoid Cartilage Tracheal Cartilage

19 Inside the Larynx Vestibular Folds: Vocal Cords, or vocal folds
Also called false vocal cords, ventricular band of larynx, ventricular folds, and upper folds Vocal Cords, or vocal folds Lower, “true” vocal cords Attach to the arytenoid cartilages by the vocal ligaments (internal) Glottis: The vocal cords and the space (rima glottidis) between them.

20 Inside the Larynx

21 Inside the Larynx Corniculate cartilage Cuneiform cartilage
Rima Glottis True Vocal Cords Glottis Epiglottis Tongue

22 Glottis: True cords plus opening Rima Glottis: The opening

23 Airways Larynx Trachea Right Mainstem Bronchi Left Mainstem Bronchi
The carina is the last cartilage which separates the entrances to the left and right primary bronchi Secondary Bronchi Carina Secondary Bronchi

24 Bronchi The carina of the last tracheal cartilage marks the end of the trachea and the beginning of the right and left bronchi Left main stem bronchus Right main stem bronchus Bronchi subdivide into secondary bronchi, each supplying a lobe of the lungs

25 Respiratory Tree

26 Branching of Bronchial Tree
Trachea Primary Bronchi Secondary Bronchi Tertiary Bronchi Bronchioles Terminal/Respiratory Bronchioles

27 Lungs Apex: the part under the clavicle
Base: the part touching the diaphragm Costal Surface: the part touching the ribs Hilus: indentation containing pulmonary and systemic blood vessels Left Lung has 2 lobes and a cardiac notch Left upper lobe Left lower lobe Right Lung has 3 lobes Right upper lobe, middle lobe, lower lobe

28 Lungs Apex Base LUL RUL Oblique fissure Horizontal fissure
Hilus Horizontal fissure Cardiac notch Oblique fissure LLL RML RLL Base

29 Lungs: Medial View

30 Lung Lobes

31 Pleura Pleura is the double-layered sac of serous membrane
Parietal Pleura is the outer layer and is attached to the thoracic walls Visceral Pleura is the inner layer covering the lung tissue The layers are only touching, they are not fused together The potential space is called the pleural cavity There is serous fluid between the layers which allows them to slide against each other during breathing

32 Pleural cavity is in between the two layers

33 Mediastinum The area between the lungs. Posterior to the sternum
Anterior to the vertebrae Contains the heart, great vessels, esophagus and thymus

34 Trachea Histology Composed of three layers
Mucosa: made up of goblet cells and ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium Submucosa: connective tissue deep to the mucosa Adventitia: outermost layer, has C-shaped rings of hyaline cartilage

35 Trachea

36 Trachea Histology

37 Trachea Histology

38 Seromucous Glands (Trachea)

39 Trachea Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium
Submucosa with seromucous glands Hyaline Cartilage

40 Bronchi Bronchioles Tissue walls of bronchi mimic that of the trachea
As conducting tubes become smaller, structural changes occur and eventually they become bronchioles Cartilage support structures change Bronchioles differ from bronchi in that they lack cartilage Epithelium types change Amount of smooth muscle increases

41 Bronchi Histology

42 Bronchiole Histology Notice the lack of cartilage
Simple columnar epithelium Notice the lack of cartilage

43 Bronchioles Respiratory Bronchioles
Respiratory Bronchioles : Continued branching leads to the area where gas exchange occurs by simple diffusion

44 Respiratory Bronchioles Alveolar Ducts Alveolar sacs

45 Alveolar sacs Alveoli Alveolar sacs look like clusters of grapes
The “individual grapes” are Alveoli

46 Alveoli Histology

47 Type II Pneumocytes are cuboidal and produce surfactant
Type 1 Pneumocytes are flattened for gas exchange


49 Respiratory Membrane The area where gas exchange between air and blood occurs It is the fused alveolar and capillary walls (3 layers) Squamous type 1 alveolar epithelium Fused basal laminae Squamous endothelial cells in pulmonary capillaries

50 Respiratory Membrane

51 The End Make sure that you can identify structures on the models
Identify the structures on microscopes

Download ppt "Anatomy of the Respiratory System"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google