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Unit II: Transport Respiratory System Chapter 20 pp 721-735.

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1 Unit II: Transport Respiratory System Chapter 20 pp 721-735

2 Review 1.Blood normally flows into a capillary bed from: a.) distributing arteries, b.) conducting arteries, c.) metarteriole, d.) thoroughfare channel, e.) venules 2.Plasma solutes enter the tissue fluid most easily from a.) continuous capillaries, b.) fenestrated capillaries, c.) arteriovenous anastomoses, d.) collateral vessels 3.A blood vessel adapted to withstand a high pulse pressure would be expected to have: a.) elastic tunica media, b.) thick tunica intima, c.) one-way valves, d.) a rigid tunica media 4.Intestinal blood flow to the liver by way of: a.) superior mesenteric artery, b.) celiac trunk, c.) inferior vena cava, d.) hepatic portal system 5.The capillaries of skeletal muscle are of the structural type called _______

3 Respiratory System Bring in oxygen; produce carbon dioxide as waste product Cardiopulmonary Homeostasis of acid-base balance Definitions: – ventilation – gas exchange – aerobic (cellular) respiration

4 Upper Respiratory Filters, warms, and humidifies incoming and reabsorbs heat and water from outgoing air Tongue Nose Nasal cavity Sinuses Pharynx Larynx Lower Respiratory Conducts air to and from the as exchange surfaces Trachea Bronchus Bronchioles Smallest bronchioles Alveoli Left lung Right lung Esophagus Clavicle Ribs Diaphragm Organs of Respiratory System

5 Right eye Superior nasal concha Middle meatus Middle nasal concha Superior meatus Inferior meatus Inferior nasal concha Tongue Mandible Hard palate Vomer Perpendicular plate of ethmoid Nasal Septum Paranasal Sinuses Frontal sinus Ethmoidal air cell Maxillary sinus Nose Functions: –warms, cleanses, humidifies inhaled air –detects odors –resonating chamber that amplifies the voice Bony and cartilaginous supports Sinuses

6 A chamber shared by the digestive and respiratory systems Pharynx Laryngopharynx Oropharynx Nasopharynx Trachea Larynx Tongue Glottis Soft palate Hard palate External nares Internal nares Nasal vestibule Nasal cavity Nasal Cavity External to internal nares Nasal septum Nasal fossae Vestibule: stratified squamous –vibrissae (guard hairs)

7 Nasal Cavity Frontal sinus Nasal conchae: Superior Middle Inferior Guard hairs External nares (nostril) Hard palate Vestibule Superior, middle and inferior nasal conchae Meatuses –narrowness and turbulence ensures air contacts membranes Olfactory epithelium –lines roof of nasal fossa Respiratory epithelium –ciliated pseudostratified epithelium –lysozyme destroys bacteria Posterior nasal aperture Ethmoid bone

8 Regions of Pharynx Oropharynx Nasopharynx Laryngopharynx Pharynx: Vomer

9 Hyoid bone Trachea Hyoid bone Epiglottis Thyroid cartilage Cricoid cartilage Tracheal cartilages Vestibular ligament Vocal ligament Posterior Anterior Anterior view Epiglottis Thyroid cartilage Cricoid cartilage Tracheal cartilages Posterior view Sagittal section Epiglottis Thyroid cartilage Cricoid cartilage Large Cartilages Ligamentous attachments to hyoid bone Laryngeal prominence Larynx Exclude food and drink from airway –Epiglottis –Vestibular folds Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic muscles

10 Larynx Vocal cords –Glottis –stratified squamous Corniculate cartilage Aryepiglottic fold Vestibular fold Epiglottis Glottis (open) Glottis (closed) Vocal fold (open glottis) Vocal fold (closed glottis) Vestibular fold Cuneiform cartilage Root of tongue

11 Trachea Tube 4.5 in. long x 1 in. diameter C-shaped cartilaginous rings –trachealis spans opening in rings pseudostratified columnar epithelium forks into primary/main bronchi

12 Larynx Trachea Primary bronchi Secondary bronchi Thyroid cartilage Cricoid cartilage Trachealis muscle Hyaline cartilage ring Lumen Mucosa Mucous gland (c) (a) (b) Particles of debris Cartilage Chondrocytes Mucociliary escalator Mucus Ciliated cell Tertiary bronchi Epithelium: Goblet cell Trachea

13 Lungs - Surface Anatomy Left lung: Smaller Cardiac impression Superior & inferior lobes Right lung: Larger Superior, inferior, and middle lobes

14 Primary bronchus Cartilage LEFT LUNG Hilum Secondary bronchus Visceral pleura Bronchiole Secondary (superior lobar bronchus) Tertiary bronchi Respiratory epithelium Smooth muscle Bronchioles Terminal bronchiole Pulmonary lobule 1mm or less in diameter Lack cartilage Ventilates a pulmonary lobule Bronchial Tree – Conducting Division Branches of the pulmonary arteries follow branches of bronchial tree Bronchial artery nourishes bronchial tree itself

15 Pulmonary artery Bronchiole Terminal bronchiole Alveoli Alveolar duct Alveolar sac Respiratory bronchiole Branch of pulmonary vein Capillary beds Bronchial artery (red), nerve (yellow), and vein (blue) The Pleura Visceral pleura Pleural cavity Parietal pleura Bronchial Tree – Respiratory Division

16 Capillary Elastic fibers Type II pneumocytes Type I pneumocytes Alveolar macrophages Air pore Endothelial cell of capillary Bronchial Tree – Respiratory Division Alveoli – main site for gas exchange –Type I cells (95%) and Type II cuboidal cells –Pulmonary surfactant

17 Pleurae and Pleural Fluid Visceral and parietal pleurae Pleural cavity – –pleural fluid Functions: 1.reduce friction 2.create pressure gradient 3.compartmentalization

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