2 DEVIANCE AND CRIMEDEVIANCE: BEHAVIOR, BELIEFS OR CONDITIONS THAT VIOLATE CULTURAL NORMSNO ACT OR BELIEF IS INHERENTLY DEVIANTRELATIVE TO TIME AND CULTURESOCIALLY CONSTRUCTED
3 FUNCTIONALIST VIEW OF DEVIANCE DURKHEIMDEVIANCE OCCURS IN ALL SOCIETIESDEVIANCE CLARIFIES RULESDEVIANCE UNITES A GROUPDEVIANCE PROMOTES SOCIAL CHANGE
4 MERTON’S STRAIN THEORY OF DEVIANCE FIVE MODES OF ADAPTATIONCONFORMITYINNOVATIONRITUALISMRETREATISMREBELLION
5 Typology of Individual Modes of Adaptation MODES OF CULTURAL INSTITUTIONALIZED ADAPTATION GOALS MEANS1. CONFORMITY2. INNOVATION3. RITUALISM4. RETREATISM5. REBELLION +/ /-
6 Strain Theory: Anomie MAJOR PREMISE STRENGTHS People who adopt the goals ofsociety but lack the means to attain themseek alternatives, such as crime.MAJOR PREMISEPoints out how competition for success createsconflict and crime. Suggests that social conditions and not personality can account for crime. Can explain middle- and upper-class crime.STRENGTHS
7 OPPORTUNITY THEORY OF DEVIANCE CLOWARD AND OHLIN THEORYILLEGITIMATE OPPORTUNITIES EXIST IN SOME SUBCULTURESWHEN LEGITIMATE MEANS ARE NOT AVAILABLE TO ACQUIRE SOCIETIES GOALS
8 Cultural Deviance Theory: Cloward and Ohlin’s Theory of Opportunity MAJOR PREMISE:Blockage of conventional opportunities causeslower-class youths to join criminal, conflict, or retreatist gangs.STRENGTHS:Shows that even illegal opportunities are structured in society. Indicates why people become involved in a particular type of criminal activity. Presents a way of preventing crime.
9 INTERACTIONIST VIEW OF DEVIANCE DEVIANCE IS LEARNED THROUGH SOCIAL INTERACTIONTHEORIES:DIFFERENTIAL ASSOCIATION (EDWIN SUTHERLAND)LABELING THEORY
10 DIFFERENTIAL ASSOCIATION DEVIANCE IS LEANED THROUGH ASSOCIATION WITH THOSE MORE FAVORABLE TO DEVIANCELEARNING INCLUDES TECHNIQUES, MOTIVES, ATTITUDES AND RATIONALIZATIONTHE ASSOCIATION MUST BE: FREQUENT, INTENSE, AND LONG LASTING
11 Social Learning Theory: Differential Association Major Premise:People learn to commit crimefrom exposure to antisocialdefinitions.STRENGTHSExplains onset of criminality. Explains thepresence of crime in all elements of socialstructure. Explains why some people inhigh-crime areas refrain from criminality.Can apply to adults and juveniles.
12 LABELING THEORY FOCUSES ON THE PROCESS NOT THE BEHAVIOR DEVIANTS ARE THOSE WHO HAVE BEEN SUCCESSFULLY LABELED AS DEVIANTLABELING DONE BY THOSE IN AUTHORITYPRIMARY DEVIANCESECONDARY DEVIANCE
13 Primary and Secondary Deviance NegativeLabelSocialreactionDegradationCeremoniesDeviantactTHELABELINGPROCESSSelf-labelingSecondarydevianceDeviantsubcultureDevianceamplification
14 CONFLICT VIEW OF DEVIANCE THE POWERFUL USE LAW TO PROTECT THEIR INTERESTSLAW IS USED TO CONTROL LOWER CLASSESAFFLUENT NOT PROSECUTED AS ARE POORTHE POOR AND UNEDUCATED MORE LIKELY TO BE ARRESTED AND PROSECUTED
15 Conflict Theory STRENGTHS MAJOR PREMISE Accounts for class differentials in the crime rate. Shows how class conflict influences behavior.MAJOR PREMISECrime is a function of class conflict. The definition of the law is controlled by people who hold social and political power.
16 CRIME DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CRIME AND DEVIANCE SOCIOLOGIST CLASSIFICATION OF CRIMESTREET CRIME: PROPERTY AND PERSONSOCCUPATIONAL/WHITE COLLAR CRIMECORPORATE CRIMEORGANIZED CRIMEPOLITICAL CRIME
17 Classification of Crime More serious offensesPunishable by deathor imprisonment formore than a year in astate prison.FELONYLess serious offensesPunishable by incar-ceration for less than ayear in a local jail orhouse of correction.MISDEMEANOR
18 The General Theory of Crime Low self-controlImpulsive personalityCrime and devianceCriminalOpportunityWeakening ofsocial bonds