7 Emile Durkheim deviance affirms cultural values and norms -condemning something as “deviant” clarifies moral boundaries-constructing an act as deviant can unify social groups-what is constructed as deviant may often be reconstructed as a social or commercial good
8 Robert Merton’s Strain Theory Deviant behavior arises from social realities in which few opportunities or “means” to an end exist to achieve cultural goals?what is “innovation, ritualism, retreatism, rebellion” for Merton?
9 Strain TheoryConformity-embracing the society’s definition of success and adhering to the established and approved means of achieving success
10 Strain TheoryInnovation-refers to used of illicit means to reach approved goals
11 Strain TheoryRitualism- involves strict adherence to the culturally prescribed rules, even though individuals give up on the goals they hoped to achieve
12 Strain TheoryRetreatism-giving up on both the goals and the means to achieve them
13 Strain TheoryRebellion-rejecting the socially approved ideas of success and the means of attaining that success but replacing them with alternative definitions of success and alternative strategies for attaining the new goals
18 Conflict Theory This approach links deviance to social inequality Who or what is labeled “deviant” depends on which categories of people hold power in a society
19 Deviance, Conflict Theory and Capitalism Deviant labels have often been applied to people or populations that are perceived to have no or little use in a system of industrial or capitalist production
20 Erving Goffman and Stigma Stigma: culturally negative label that greatly alters or shapes ones self-concept/identity
21 MEDICALIZATION OF DEVIANCE when behavior constructed as deviant becomes medicalized, the notions of objectivity and legitimacy associated with science and scientific inquiry alter the construction of the behavior;?What is the difference between behavior that is “biologized” versus “medicalized”?
22 Travis Hirschi: Control Theory four types of social controlattachmentopportunityinvolvementbelief
23 attachmentAttachment to other people who respect the values and rules of the society; individuals do not want to be rejected by those to whom they are close or they admire
24 commitmentCommitment to conventional activities (schools and jobs) that they do not want to jeopardize
25 involvementInvolvement in activities that keep them so busy with conventional roles and expectations that they do not have time for mischief
26 beliefBelief in the social rules of their culture that they accept because of childhood socialization and indoctrination into conventional beliefs.
27 Differential association theory Refers to the difference in people with whom members of a society interact; some people learn to conform and other learn to deviate, depending on their associations
28 Differential association theory This theory focuses on the process of learning deviance from family, peers, fellow employees, political organizations, gangs etc…
29 Differential association theory According to this theory, the possibility of becoming deviant depends on four factors:DurationIntensityPriorityFrequency
30 LABELING THEORYLabeling theory focuses on how people define reality or what is or is not “normal”No behavior or individual is intrinsically deviantBehavior “is” deviant because individuals label it deviantMembers of a society create deviance by defining behaviors as deviant; they then react to the deviance by rejection or by imposing penalties
31 LABELING THEORYLabeling theorists define 2 stages in the process of becoming a deviant:Primary deviance-a violation of a norm that may be an isolated eventSecondary deviance-continuing to violate a norm and taking on a deviant identity
32 ANOMIEAnomie or “normlessness” describes the breakdown of norms caused by the lack of shared, achievable goals and lack of socially approved means to achieve goals