Presentation on theme: "The Art of Poetry Poetry has been defined as “heightened language,” as it is generally a very artistic use of language, which puts the language into verse."— Presentation transcript:
1 The Art of PoetryPoetry has been defined as “heightened language,” as it is generally a very artistic use of language, which puts the language into verse and concentrates on rhythm. As your text points out, there need not be even a predictable rhyme or rhythm scheme for a piece of literature to be considered a poem.In a poem, instead of sentences and paragraphs, you find lines and stanzas.
2 Elements of PoetryIn addition to metaphor, imagery, symbolism, and tone, we will look at speaker and situation, syntax, and sound as we study poetry.
3 SpeakerOne of the most difficult concepts in the study of poetry is that of speaker.The speaker is roughly equivalent to the narrator of fictional works. It is a character or a psychological persona that the poet constructs to deliver the words of the poem.
4 Speaker vs. PoetBe very careful in analyzing poem that you do not attribute the emotions or events experienced by the speaker to the poet, him- or herself.Sometimes, you may have strong biographical evidence linking the speaker to the poet, in which case you might quote and cite that information to make your case; however, for the purposes of this class, you should mentally divorce the speaker from the poet.
5 SituationThe situation is the context in which the speaker finds him- or herself. This is roughly equivalent to setting and plot in fiction.In “Bored” by Margaret Atwood, the speaker is the grown-up child who now understands that time spent with his/her father was precious, even though he/she did not understand that at the time. The situation is one removed from those former boring times.
6 SyntaxSyntax refers to the structure of language in a poem. A poem’s lines may be long or short, simple or complex.Generally, we would look to the line length or the shape of the lines and stanzas as being related somehow to the poem’s theme.
7 SoundSound in poems is extremely important. Poems can be analyzed by rhythm or the internal sounds of words or phrases.Rhythm can be created out of meter, the regular pattern of accented and unaccented syllables in a poetic line, and pace, the relative speed suggested by the lines.
8 Internal SoundsRhyme occurs when the final accented syllables of words sound alike. They usually occur at the end of a poetic line. A regular rhyme scheme may make the poem’s lines more predictable or more easy to memorize.Roses are red / Violets are blue / Sugar is sweet / And so are youAlliteration occurs when initial consonant or vowel sounds are repeated through several wordsRoses are redAssonance occurs when internal vowel sounds are repeated through several words whose final consonant sounds differ.Lake and fate
9 Questions for Analyzing Poems Speaker and SituationWhat kind pf person is speaking in the poem? Can you figure out age, race, gender?What is the situation of the poem?How do speaker and/or situation relate to the poem’s theme?
10 Questions, continued Tone How would you describe the tone of the poem? Does the tone change over the course of the poem?Do diction, syntax, imagery, and/or sound help develop that tone?
11 Questions, continued Diction What is the level of the poem’s diction? Is it formal or informal? Simple or difficult? Elegant or course?What words might have double meanings?Does the poem use paradox or verbal irony?
12 Questions, continued Syntax How difficult are the lines or sentences? Are they short and simple or long and complex?Are there any departures from standard grammar, such as fragmented elliptical passages?Does the syntax change over the course of the poem?
13 Questions, continued Imagery What patterns does the imagery suggest? What colors predominate?To what senses do the images appeal?What similes, metaphors, and symbols does the poet use?Are there contrasting images?Does the imagery change through the course of the poem?
14 Questions, continued Sound What effects are created by the sounds and location of particular words/Does the poem move fast or slow? Does it flow smoothly, or does it contain abrupt shifts, stops and starts?How regular is the meter of the poem? What is the meter?Does the poem use rhyme, alliteration, or assonance?Does the sound in the poem change?