Presentation on theme: "Persuasive Speaking Chapter 14"— Presentation transcript:
1 Persuasive Speaking Chapter 14 Adler and Rodman’s definition:“Persuasion: the process of motivating someone, through communication, to change a particular belief, attitude, or behavior.” p. 418Examples…beliefs, attitudes, behavior...
2 Ethical Persuasion Through speech ethical persuasion is not coercion or deceitful.“It is communication in the best interest of the audience that does not depend on false or misleading information” - p. 421It is done because we, the speaker, hope some good will come of it.When is persuasion not ethical?
3 Typically, there are two desired outcomes of a persuasive speech 1. Convince; change the way an audience members think, or reinforce what they may already believe2. Actuate; move audience members to a specific behavior.a. Adoptionb. discontinuance
4 In order to move our audience, we must examine where they are at, and begin from there.
5 Persuasion is usually Incremental Continuum of CogencyCogency is believability.~examine your audience to find where they stand on an issue~ move them from that pointPeople are often offended if we ask them to leap too far.
6 Continuum of Cogency Absolute truth, certainty, probability, plausible,possible,ounce of truthDiscussion- Is there absolute Truth?
7 Ask the question…What will it take to convince my audience to adopt my opinion? Change their behavior?What do I have to prove for them to believe what I say is true?Answering these questions builds the strength of your argumentQueen of England
8 How is the Continuum of Cogency like Social Judgment Theory? ~both are incrementalStrongly agree= anchorAgree= latitude of acceptanceDon’t care= latitude of noncommitmentStrongly disagree= latitude of rejection
9 Tips: ~set realistic, modest goals. ~Don’t feel bad if not everyone in the audience walks away believing as you do- it is a gradual process.~ “Social Judgment Theory suggests that the best chance of changing the audience attitudes would come by presenting an argument based on a position that fell somewhere within the listener’s latitude of non-commitment- even if it isn’t the position that you ultimately wanted them to accept” (p. 420).
10 But don’t be afraid to assert your opinion. We all have values and make judgments that we believe are right and better than others.It is ok to tell people what to believe, if you offer good, honest reasons.
11 Artistic Appeals; building your persuasive power From Aristotle1. Ethos- ethical appeal; Character- it makes a difference who is making the appeal2. Pathos- emotional appeal-it makes a difference what the audience feels like about the appeal3. Logos- logical, reasoning appeal-It makes a difference what they think
12 Artistic Appeals“The last function of reason is to recognize that there are an infinity of things that surpass it.” -Pascal
13 Ethos asks how the audience feels about the speaker 1. What do they think of your character?Do they see you as trustworthy and credible?2. Do you demonstrate competence?Do you seem smart and knowledgeable?3. Do you have goodwill?(some times called Charisma or Dynamism- enthusiasm)Do you have the audience’s best interest at heart?
14 Pathos; how do you use emotion to persuade? We are emotional beings, and we persuade through using emotion.What emotions do you want the audience to feel?What emotions will you convey as a speaker?~Use Emotion Appropriately~
15 Logos; logical argument Give your audience good reasons to believe you.Walk them through the reasoning process.Don’t underestimate the power of a conversion story.- How did you come to hold the opinion your self?
16 Strengthening your argument. Present both sides of any argument, and why your side is better.this makes you seem more knowledgeable and honestIt shows that your argument can withstand pressureYou never know your own side of a debate, until you truly understand the opposition.
17 Review of Structure Set a clear purpose Describe the problem -what is the nature of the problem?- how does it affect your audience?Describe the solutionDescribe the desired audience response-how easy is it to do?-what are the rewards?
18 Monroe’s Motivated Sequence ~variation on the problem-solution pattern (page 356)Attention Step: draws attention to the subjectNeed Step: establishes the problemSatisfaction Step: proposes a solutionVisualization Step: describes the results of the solution (Utopia)Action Step: direct appeal for the audience to do something