2 Learning Objectives After studying Chapter 4, students should be able to: Explain the importance of job analysis and its relationship to internal alignment.Discuss the difference between job-based, knowledge-based, and competency-based pay structures.Describe the job analysis process.Discuss the difference between quantitative and conventional job analysis approaches.
3 Many Ways to Create Internal Structure Business and Work-Related Internal StructurePerson-basedSkillCompetenciesJob-based(Chapter 6)(Chapter 6)PURPOSECollect, summarize work informationJob analysisJob descriptions(Chapter 4)Determine what to valueSee Exhibit 5.1, text page 121Job evaluation: classes or compensable factors(Chapter 5)Assess valueFactor degrees and weighting(Chapter 5)Translate into structureJob-based structure(Chapter 5)
4 Job analysis is the systematic process of collecting information about the nature of specific jobs.
5 Determining the Internal Job Structure Internal relationships in the organizationJob descriptionsJob evaluationJob structureJob analysisAn ordering of jobs based on their content or relative valueCollecting information about the nature of specific jobsSummary reports that identify, define, and describe the job as it is actually performedComparison of jobs within an organizationSee Exhibit 4.2, text page 91Some Major Issues in Job AnalysisWhy collect information?What information is needed?How to collect the information?Who should be involved?How useful are the results?
6 Job AnalysisJob analysis involves the identification and description of what is happening on the job.Job analysis identifies:required tasksknowledge and skillsworking conditionsJob analysis is the process of collecting information about jobs. Job analysis helps establish the equity and efficiency of a pay system. It is essential to developing job descriptions and job evaluation. Job analysis is an on-going need as the nature of work changes over time.
7 Job Analysis Terminology JOB FAMILYGrouping of related jobs with broadly similar content, e.g. marketing, engineering, office support, technical.JOBGroup of tasks performed by one person that make up the total work assignment of that person, e.g. customer support representative.TASKSmallest unit of analysis, a specific statement of what a person does; for example, answers the telephone. Similar tasks can be grouped into a task dimension, e.g. responsible for ensuring that accurate information is provided to customer.See Exhibit 4.3, text page 93
8 General Procedures for Conventional Job Analysis Develop preliminary job informationConduct initial tour of work siteConduct interviewsConduct second tour of work siteConsolidate job informationVerify job descriptionSee Exhibit 4.4 pages 94 – 95 in text
9 Typical Data Collected for Job Analysis Data Related to JobJob IdentificationJob ContentData Related to EmployeeEmployee CharacteristicsInternal RelationshipsExternal Relationships
10 Job Analysis: Data Related to Job Job IdentificationTitleDepartment in which job is locatedNumber of people who hold jobJob ContentTasksActivitiesConstraints on actionsPerformance criteriaCritical incidentsConflicting demandsWorking conditionsRoles (e.g., negotiator, monitor, leader)
11 Job Analysis: Data Related to Employee Employee CharacteristicsProfessional/technical knowledgeManual skillsVerbal skillsWritten skillsQuantitative skillsMechanical skillsConceptual skillsManagerial skillsLeadership skillsInterpersonal skillsInternal RelationshipsBoss & other superiorsPeersSubordinatesExternal RelationshipsSuppliersCustomersRegulatoryProfessional/IndustryCommunityUnion/Employee Groups
12 Job Analysis: How Can the Information be Collected? Conventional MethodsQuantitative Methods
13 The Conventional Techniques of Job Analysis Task Inventory AnalysisCritical Incident TechniquePosition Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ)Functional Job Analysis (FAQ)Methods Analysis (Motion Study)Guidelines-Oriented Job AnalysisManagement Position Description Questionnaire (MPDQ)
14 Who is Involved in Job Analysis? Who Collects the Information?Who Provides the Information?How to Resolve Discrepancies
15 Writing Job Descriptions A job description is a written record of the duties and responsibilities of a specific job compiled through job analysis.It consists of statements which identify and describe the scope and contents of a job.
16 Writing Job Descriptions (continued) A job description does not describe all the details of a job.Rather, it provides an outline of the essential functions and major duties of a job.
17 Job Descriptions Job Title Job Identification Essential Functions 4. Job Specifications.Job Description1. XXX2. XXX3. XXX4. XXXJob IdentificationJob SpecificationsEssential FunctionsA job description is a statement of the tasks, duties, and responsibilities of a job to be performed. Job descriptions are important to both employees and employers. For employees, the job description can be used to help them to learn their job duties and understand the results they are expected to achieve. For employers, written job descriptions can serve to minimize the misunderstandings that occur between managers and subordinates. Key elements of job descriptions include:Job Title. Selection of a job title is important for several reasons:Psychological. The job title provides status to the employee.Indication of duties. The job title helps describe what the employee does.Level in hierarchy. The job title should indicate the relative level occupied by its holder in the organization.Job Identification Section. This usually follows the job title and indicates the departmental location of the job, the person to whom the job holder reports, and other pertinent information.Essential Functions Section. This is a statement of job duties and is typically arranged in order of importance, indicating the weight or value of each duty. It is also important that the job description enumerate and explain the essential functions (the mental and physical skills and abilities) required to do the job successfully. Managers who write job descriptions in terms of essential functions reduce the risk of discriminating on the basis of a disability.Job Specifications Section. This section describes the personal qualifications a person must possess to perform the duties and responsibilities contained in a job description. Skills relevant to a job include education or experience, specialized training, personal traits or abilities, and manual dexterities. Physical demands refer to how much walking, standing, reaching, lifting, or talking must be done on the job.6
18 Times for Reviewing Jobs and Revising Descriptions Are: (1 of 2) As part of periodic performance review.When assigning a new incumbent to the jobWhen major changes are made in the product or outputs provided by a work unit or individualWith the introduction of new equipment, methods, or procedures to the workplace
19 Times for Reviewing Jobs and Revising Descriptions Are: (2 of 2) With the reorganization of the work unitWith the implementation of a new pay systemWhen a new responsibility (a major work activity area) is added to the job
20 Judging Job Analysis Validity Reliability Practicality Acceptability See textbook, pagesReliability. Is a measure of the consistency of results among various analysts or various methods or various sources of data overtime.Validity. Does the analysis create an accurate portrait of the work? Validity examines convergence of results among sources of data methods.Acceptability. If jobholders and managers are dissatisfied with the initial data collected and the process, they are not likely to buy into the resulting job structure nor the pay rates that are eventually attached to that structure. Conventional job analysis is not well accepted because of its potential for subjectivity and favoritism.Practicality. Refers to the usefulness of the information collected. For pay purposes, job analysis provides work-related information to help determine how much to pay for a job - it helps determine if the job is similar or different from other jobs. If job analysis does this in a reliable (consistent), valid (accurate), and acceptable (cost effective) way, then the technique is of practical use.PracticalityAcceptability
21 SummaryEncouraging employee behaviors that help achieve an organization’s objectives and foster a sense of fairness among employees are two hallmarks of a useful internal pay structure.A key strategic decision is how much to align a pay structure internally compared to aligning it to external market forces. This strategic decision focuses on sustaining the optimal balance of internally aligned and externally responsive pay structures that help the organization achieve its mission. Both are required.
22 Summary (continued)A key test of an effective and fair pay structure is acceptance of results by managers and employees. The best way to ensure acceptance of job analysis results is to involve employees as well as supervisors in the process.Alternatives to job-based structures such as skill-based or competency-based systems are being experimented within many firms. The premise is that basing structures on these criteria will encourage employees to become more flexible, and fewer workers will be required for the same level of output.
23 Review QuestionsJob analysis has been considered the corner-stone of human resource management. How does it support managers making pay decisions?What does job analysis have to do with internal alignment?Describe the major decisions involved in job analysis.Distinguish between task and behavioral data.What is the critical advantage of quantitative approaches over conventional approaches to job analysis?