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Job Analysis and Competency ModelsChapter 4 Job Analysis and Competency Models © 2013 by Nelson Education
Chapter Learning OutcomesAfter reading this chapter you should: Understand the importance of job analysis and the role it plays in recruitment and selection Be able to describe guidelines for conducting analyses employing a variety of job analysis techniques Be able to use standard tools and techniques to conduct a job analysis © 2013 by Nelson Education
Chapter Learning Outcomes (continued)Recognize processes for identifying job specifications to be used in recruitment and selection of human resources Understand what competencies are Understand the role competencies play in recruitment and selection Know how to identify competencies © 2013 by Nelson Education
Chapter Learning Outcomes (continued)Understand the need to validate competency- based systems Be able to distinguish competency-based HR models from those based on job analysis Recognize best practices in competency modelling © 2013 by Nelson Education
What is Work and Job Analysis?Work analysis: any systematic gathering, documenting, and analyzing of information about the content of work performed Job analysis: the process of collecting information about jobs “by any method for any purpose” Analysis Data: includes a description of the duties of the job, including job responsibilities and working conditions, information about the knowledge, skills, abilities, and other attributes required in its performance. Job analysis data support several HR activities (e.g., recruitment, selection, training and development, performance management). HR activities are concerned with matching people to jobs within a specific organizational context. © 2013 by Nelson Education
Work and Job Analysis – Key TermsJob description: a written description of what job occupants are required to do; how they are supposed to do it; and the rationale for any required job procedures Job specification: the knowledge, skills, abilities, and other attributes or competences that are needed by a job incumbent to perform well on the job © 2013 by Nelson Education
Work and Job Analysis – Key TermsJob: a collection of positions that are similar in their significant duties Position: a collection of duties assigned to individuals in an organization at a given time Job family: a set of different, but related jobs that rely on the same set of KSAOs © 2013 by Nelson Education
Class Activity Do you have a current job description in your full-time, part-time or contract position? Why are job descriptions important in the recruiting process? © 2013 by Nelson Education
Subject-Matter ExpertsSubject-matter experts (SMEs): people who are most knowledgeable about a job and how it is currently performed Data collected from job incumbents and their immediate supervisors © 2013 by Nelson Education
Job Analysis and Employment Law – A RepriseEmployment decisions must be based on job-related information Job analysis: a legally acceptable way of determining job-relatedness A good job analysis ensures that accurate information on skill, effort, responsibility, and working conditions is specified, reducing the likelihood of job analysis-impediments to equitable employment access for all Canadians. It provides objective evidence of the skills and abilities required for effective performance on the job, involved in the selection of the candidates. © 2013 by Nelson Education
Job Analysis Methods Three criteria in choosing a method:Goal of job analysis includes the description of observable work behaviours and analysis of their products Results of a job analysis should describe the work behaviour, not the personal characteristics of the individual Any job analysis must produce outcomes that are verifiable and replicable Job analysis methods: positions in an organization exist independently of the incumbents who fill those positions; in job analysis, it is the job that is being analyzed, not the performance of the individual incumbents. Any job analysis must produce outcomes that are verifiable and replicable; the organization must be able to produce evidence of both the validity and the reliability of each step in the job analysis process. © 2013 by Nelson Education
KSAOs KSAOs: the knowledge, skills, abilities, and other attributes necessary for a new incumbent to do well on the job Also referred to as a job, employment, or worker specifications © 2013 by Nelson Education
National Occupational Classification (NOC) SystemNational Occupational Classification System: systematically describes occupations in the Canadian labour market based on extensive occupational research A NOC profile presents both a description and specification of the job or occupation Human Resources and Social Development Canada website: Each occupation or job is given a four-digit code that provides the analyst with a more extensive description related to the KSAOs associated with the job © 2013 by Nelson Education
Work- and Worker-Oriented Job AnalysisWork-oriented job analysis: techniques that emphasize work outcomes and descriptions of tasks performed to accomplish those outcomes Worker-oriented job analysis: techniques that emphasize general aspects of jobs; describes perceptual, interpersonal, sensory, cognitive, and physical activities © 2013 by Nelson Education
Survey of Work-Oriented Job Analysis MethodsInterviews Direct Observation Self-Monitoring Data Rating Task Statements and KSAOs © 2013 by Nelson Education
Survey of Work-Oriented Job Analysis Methods (continued)Structured Job Analysis Questionnaires and Inventories Task Inventories Functional Job Analysis Critical Incident Technique © 2013 by Nelson Education
Interviews Interview: involves questioning individuals, small groups, and/or supervisors; designed to ask all interviewees the same job-related questions Most common technique used May be structured or unstructured Should be well planned and carefully conducted Job analyst should record the job incumbent’s or supervisor’s responses by taking notes or by taping-recording the interview; this ensures accuracy regarding the job duties/responsibilities Interview outlines ensures consistency, asking the appropriate questions Disadvantages to the interview process: 1. expensive and time consuming; impractical for jobs with a large number of incumbents; 2. workers may be prone to distorting the information they provide about their jobs; 3. more time consuming and more expensive to conduct than group interviews © 2013 by Nelson Education
Recruitment and Selection Notebook 4.1Guidelines for a Job Analysis Interview Announce the job analysis well ahead of the interview date Participation in interviews should be voluntary, and job incumbents should be interviewed only with the permission of their supervisors Interviews should be conducted in a private location free from the trappings of status Recruitment and Selection Notebook 4.1 (page 121) discusses how the interview should be well planned and carefully conducted. Guidelines for conducting interviews are summarized. © 2013 by Nelson Education
Recruitment and Selection Notebook 4.1(continued)Open the interview by establishing rapport and explaining the purpose of the interview Ask open-ended questions, using language that is easy to understand, and allow ample time for the employee’s responses Guide the session without being authoritative or overbearing Explain that records of the interviews will identify them only by confidential codes © 2013 by Nelson Education
Direct Observation Direct observation: a job analyst watches employees as they carry out their job activities (or job shadowing) This method is most useful when the job analysis involves easily observable activities Direct observation: depends if the type of job is observable (e.g., a landscaper job can be observed). Systematic observations of employee activities can be recorded either in narrative format or using a customized checklist/worksheet. Different jobs and environments will require different observation methods. A variety of technological aids are available to the observer (e.g., audio and video recordings). Regardless of the observation technique employed, their presence may change the behaviour of the employees. In addition to direct observation, the job analyst may ask incumbents to monitor their own work behaviour. © 2013 by Nelson Education
Self-Monitoring Self-monitoring: a job analyst may ask incumbents to monitor their own work behaviour Advantages: Less time consuming and less expensive Can be used when the conditions of work do not easily facilitate direct observation by another person Can provide information on otherwise unobservable cognitive and intellectual processes involved in the job © 2013 by Nelson Education
Employee Specifications for a JobKnowledge Skill Ability Other Attributes Knowledge: a body of information, usually of a factual or procedural nature, that makes for successful performance of a task. Skill: an individual’s level of proficiency or competency in performing a specific task. Level of competency is typically expressed in numerical terms. Ability: a more general, enduring trait or capability an individual possesses at the time he first begins to perform a task. Other Attributes: includes personality traits and other individual characteristics that are integral to job performance. © 2013 by Nelson Education
Rating Task Statements and KSAOsAll tasks are not equal Some are performed more frequently Some are more important Some require a degree of difficulty to perform © 2013 by Nelson Education
Structured Job Analysis Questionnaires and InventoriesRequire workers and other SMEs to respond to written questions about their jobs Respondents are asked to make judgments (e.g., activities, tasks, tools, equipment, working conditions) Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ): off-the-shelf questionnaires and inventories that can be used for a variety of jobs or they can be developed by the analyst for the specific job and organization in question using the critical incident technique, functional job analysis or other inventory methods. © 2013 by Nelson Education
Task Inventories Work-oriented surveys: break down jobs into their component tasks Inventory: comprises task statements that are objectively based descriptions of what gets done on a job Tasks: worker activities that result in an outcome that serves some specified purpose © 2013 by Nelson Education
Functional Job AnalysisFunctional job analysis: defines task statements as verbal descriptions of activities that workers do; it is what gets done on the job to facilitate recruitment, selection, and compensation © 2013 by Nelson Education
Critical Incident TechniqueCritical incident technique: highlights examples of effective and ineffective work behaviours Related to superior or inferior performance Generates behaviourally focused descriptions of work activities © 2013 by Nelson Education
Worker-Oriented Job Analysis MethodsPosition Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) Common-Metric Questionnaire (CMQ) Work Profiling System (WPS) Threshold Traits Analysis System Fleishman Job Analysis Survey (F-JAS) Job Element Method (JEM) Cognitive Task Analysis (CTA) PAQ: structured job analysis questionnaire that focuses on the general behaviours that make up a job. CMQ: structured, off-the-shelf job analysis questionnaire that captures important context variables. WPS: a job analysis method that consists of three versions applicable to managerial, service, and technical occupations. Threshold Traits Analysis System: designed to identify worker traits that are relevant to the target job. This method assumes that work behaviours encompass the position functions, the worker traits and the resulting job performance. F-JAS: developed as a system for identifying employee characteristics that influence job performance. It assumes that job tasks differ with respect to the abilities required to perform them successfully, and that all jobs can be classified according to ability requirements. JEM: attempts to distinguish between superior and inferior workers on the basis of job-related abilities. CTA: the term is used in relation to a class of methods that are similar on their approach to understanding the cognitive processes used by experts to complete tasks. © 2013 by Nelson Education
Part II: The Role of Competencies in Recruitment and SelectionCompetencies: groups of related behaviours that are needed for successful job performance in an organization; measurable attributes that distinguish outstanding performers from others Competencies contain three elements: 1. KSAOs that underlie effective and successful job performance; 2. the KSAOs must be observable or measurable; 3. the KSAOs must distinguish between superior and other performers © 2013 by Nelson Education
Competency Model Competency model: a collection of competencies that are relevant to performance in a particular job, job family, or functional area Usually developed as a three-tiered competency framework based on an organization’s strategy and vision Core competencies: characteristics that every member of an organization, regardless of position, function, job, or level of responsibility within the organization, is expected to possess. Functional competencies: characteristics shared by different positions within an organization. Only those members of an organization in these positions are expected to possess these competencies. Job-specific competencies: characteristics that apply only to specific positions within the organization. Only those people in the position are expected to possess these competencies. © 2013 by Nelson Education
Figure 4.6 (p. 143) Competency dictionary: a listing of all of the competencies required by an organization to achieve its mandate, along with the proficiency level required to perform successfully in different functional groups or positions. Proficiency level: the level at which competency must be performed to ensure success in a given functional group or position. Proficiency scale: a series of behavioural indicators expected at specific levels of a competency © 2013 by Nelson Education
Figure 4.7 (p. 144) is a sample of competency dictionary entry and its associated proficiency scale. It discusses communication at the basic, proficient, very proficient and mastery levels. © 2013 by Nelson Education
Competency Profile Competency profile: a set of proficiency ratings related to a function, job, or employee © 2013 by Nelson Education
Figure 4.8 (p. 145) presents a competency profile developed by Human Resources and Social Development Canada (HRSDC) for its citizen service agents. The number in parentheses following each competency represents the proficiency level required for that competency for successful job performance. © 2013 by Nelson Education
Recruitment and Selection Notebook 4.4Steps in Developing a Competency-Based Management Framework Obtain executive-level support, including sufficient human and financial resources Review the organization’s mission, vision, and values statements Adopt a competency definition that meets the needs of the organization Recruitment and Selection Notebook 4.4 (p. 147) presents a methodology that should meet the standards of a competency-based management framework. © 2013 by Nelson Education
Recruitment and Selection Notebook 4.4 (continued)Determine the HR functions for which competencies will be used Determine the architecture of the competency model Develop the competency dictionary Define the profiling methodology Identify reliable and valid assessment strategies to determine employee competency profiles © 2013 by Nelson Education
Recruitment and Selection Notebook 4.4 (continued)Document all steps in the development and implementation of the system Evaluate the system on an ongoing basis to ensure that the competency profiles continue to predict successful job performance © 2013 by Nelson Education
Table 4.4 (p. 150) illustrates eight generic factors and their definitions, along with likely predictors of those competencies. © 2013 by Nelson Education
Great Eight Competencies and Their Definitions and Likely Predictors (continued)© 2013 by Nelson Education
Great Eight Competencies and Their Definitions and Likely Predictors (continued)© 2013 by Nelson Education
Summary An understanding of job analysis and its relevance to employee recruitment and selection is crucial There are several job analysis methodologies Competency-based models are increasing in importance © 2013 by Nelson Education
Discussion Questions What are the major differences between a competency-based selection system and one developed through job analysis? What is a competency? Defend your answer. © 2013 by Nelson Education
Discussion Questions (continued)Discuss why you might not wish to fly in an airplane if the pilot was selected on the basis of only core competencies. What is the difference, or similarity, between a proficiency level and a skill? © 2013 by Nelson Education
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