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Chapter 4 Jainism.

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1 Chapter 4 Jainism

2 Overview Tirthankaras & ascetic orders Freeing the soul: ethic pillars Spiritual practices World Jainism

3 Key terms ahimsa anekantwad aparigraha Digambara jiva muni samsara
Svetambara Tirthankaras

4 “Once when he [sat in meditation], his body unmoving, they cut his flesh, tore his hair, and covered him with dirt. They picked him up and then dropped him, disturbing his meditational postures. Abandoning concern for his body, free from desire, the Venerable One humbled himself and bore the pain.” Akaranga Sutra

5 “All breathing, existing, living, sentient creatures should not be slain, nor treated with violence, nor abused, nor tormented, nor driven away. This is the pure, unchangeable, eternal law....Correctly understanding the law, one should arrive at indifference for the impressions of the senses, and not act on the motives of the world. Akangara Sutra

6 Timeline before c. 777 BCE 599-527 BCE from 3rd century BCE
1970s-1980s CE Series of 23 Tirthankaras Life of Mahavira Digambaras and Svetambaras diverge Acharya Tulsi Jain monks establish Jain centers outside India

7 The Tirthankaras and Ascetic Orders
Mahavira, “The Great Hero,” is Jainism’s major teacher, a contemporary of the Buddha Mahavira is the twenty-fourth of the Tirthankaras, or “fordmakers,” considered by Jains to be great teachers An ascetic path, Jainism is practiced in its fullest by monks and nuns Some adherents will carry the principle of nonviolence to wearing a gauze mask to avoid inhaling insects

8 The Tirthankaras and Ascetic Orders (continued)
Jain nuns and monks are celibate; they fast, do penance, and learn to endure hardships with indifference Digambaras Svetambaras Jainism, an ancient religion of India, holds a modern relevance in its gentle warnings of the importance of caring for all life

9 Mahavira (“great hero”), whose given name was Vardhamana, and who was born a kshatriya, founded Jainism in the 6th century BCE.

10 Jain nuns venerate small and colossal statues of Bahubali.

11 Freeing the Soul: the ethical pillars
Karma Considered to be subtle matter that accumulates and clings to us as we think and act Distinguish between destructive and nondestructive types Must be eliminated to attain kevala; three principles Ahimsa: nonviolence Aparigraha: nonattachment Anekantwad: nonabsolutism

12 Jainism is practiced in its fullest by monks and nuns
Spiritual Practices Jainism is practiced in its fullest by monks and nuns Laypeople seek to lead simple lives Their homes are scrupulously clean They are strict vegetarians Medicines are prepared without cruel testing on animals

13 Spiritual Practices (continued)
12 “limited” vows Jain laypeople are to undertake The first 5 are most important Nonviolence Truthfulness Not taking anything that has not been given Renouncing sexual activity outside of marriage Limiting one’s possessions

14 This 15th-century illustrated text of Mahavira shows a monk resisting the attractions of women.

15 Festivals and Pilgrimages
Holy days are celebrated with meditation, renunciation, fasting, scriptural study, and hymns Celebrate Divali but with a 3-day fast and an entire night of reciting hymns and meditating on Mahavir Most important festival is Paryushan Mahaparva, an annual festival of atonement Individuals, families, and groups may also go on pilgrimages to sacred sites

16 Ideally Jains worship without expecting personal response or help.

17 Has survived as a minority religion in India for most of its history
World Jainism Has survived as a minority religion in India for most of its history Has been carried out of India by several teachers Acharya Tulsi initiated new orders of semi-monks and nuns Also started the Anuvrat (small vow) Movement

18 Mahavira – last of 24 Mahavira is regarded as the man who gave Jainism its present-day form; although this is true only in the widest sense. He is sometimes wrongly called "the founder of Jainism".                                                                              

19 Jain Caves

20 The virtuous have no need for religion.
Considerations… The virtuous have no need for religion.

21 Their Ethical Pillars Karma – minute particles accumulated due to actions Ahimsa – all things deserve to live and evolve Aparigraha – possessions possess us; therefore, non-attachment important

22 Considerations… If we live simply we will protect the environment. Because we will not need much, we will not need big industries to produce unnecessary things.

23 Truth has many facets…

24 Spiritual Practices Celibacy, penance, fasting Non-violence to all life Usually no clothing Purification for liberation No external god

25 Small vows include… “…avoid willful killing of any innocent creature, to refrain from attacks and aggression and to work instead for world peace and disarmament, to avoid discrimination on the basis of cast or race, to eschew religions intolerance, to avoid false business and political practices….”

26 His Holiness Muni Shshil Kimarji
“We believe that Lord Jesus Christ did come to India at a place called Pallipana…where there is a big Jain temple, and he came into contact with Jain monks whose main precepts are non-violence, peace and love.” His Holiness Muni Shshil Kimarji

27 “Jesus attained Christ consciousness at the age of twenty-five while in India. Thereafter, he returned to Palestine through Tibet, Afghanistan, Persia and areas we now know as Russia.” Sai Baba

28 Rites/Rituals/Ceremonies
Communion with the Gods/Holy Ones Birth Rites of Passage/Puberty Rights Baptism Marriage Rites Death Rites

29 Communion with the Gods & Holy Ones
The Jains commune with their deities by worshiping in temples, meditating, and reciting mantras. The Jains worship idols of Jinas, or “Spiritual Victors”. The most important of these Jinas are the Tirthankaras, or “Ford-Makers”, the 24 founders of Jainism.

30 Worship of the Jinas The Jains worship publicly in stone temples. They worship by meditating, chanting mantras, and by gazing at and anointing the 24 images of the Tirthankaras, the “Ford Makers”. They also pay homage to all Jinas, or “spiritual victors”.

31 Meditations & Mantras Meditation (samayika) is an integral part of Jainism. During meditation and worship, Jains often recite mantras or prayers. The most fundamental of the Jain mantras is the Navkar Mantra.

32 The Navkar Mantra Namo Arihantanum: I bow down to Arihanta
Namo Siddhanam: I bow down to Siddha Namo Ayariyanam: I bow down to Acharya Namo Uvajjhayanam: I bow down to Upadhyaya Namo Loe Savva-sahunam: I bow down to Sadhu & Sadhvi. Eso Panch Namokaro: These five bowing downs, Savva-pavappanasano: Destroy all the sins, Manglanach Savvesim: Amongst all that is auspicious, Padhamam Havei Mangalam: This Navkar Mantra is the foremost.

33 Ahisma Ahisma is the practice of total non-violence.
A major principle of Jainism is communion with one’s environment, or oneness with one’s surroundings; this is achieved through Ahisma. Ahisma is usually symbolized by a hand with the palm facing out, which means “stop”.

34 Vegetarians Because of Ahisma, Jains do not believe in harming living beings, which all have souls. This means that they do not eat meat, and many of them do not eat vegetables either. The strictest of the Jains eat only fruits, nuts, and milk, which are acceptable because they are the byproducts of livings beings, not the actual beings themselves.

35 Karma Karma is the natural moral law of the universe, in which every good or bad action has a corresponding effect on the person doing that action. According to Jainism there are 2 types of Karma . Ghati (destructive) and Aghati (non-destructive), each containing several sub-categories. The goal of Jainism is to liberate one’s soul, to become a Jina (spiritual victor). To become a Jina, one must escape Karma by leading an ascetic and intrinsically pure life.

36 Birth There are a few simple ritual that are performed after the birth of a child Priyodhbhav Sanskar: ten days of cleansing, during which no rituals are performed, but mantras may be chanted by the priests and offerings received for the child at a temple. Namkaranan Sanskar: the ritual of naming the child, performed on the 11th, 13th, or 29th after birth. The name for a boy is selected from the 1008 Jinasahasranam, and for girls chosen from the names of the woman in the Puranas.

37 Rites of Passage/Puberty Rites
The rites of passage/puberty rites (concerning the laity) that Jains practice are not strictly practices of Jainism. Rather they are often the local Hindu customs. These customs are acceptable as long as the do not violate the ethics of Jainism.

38 Monks and Nuns Monks and nuns must base their lives on mahavrats, or the “great vows”. These include: Not injuring any life forms, Ahisma Truthfulness, Satya Not stealing, Asteya Celibacy, Brahmachanga Not accepting personal possessions, Aparigraha

39 Water Rituals The Jains do not practice baptism. However, they do have rules that must be followed when using water. Water should be filtered before use to prevent harm to living creatures that may be in the water Some stricter (more spiritual) Jains do not bathe and only use water as necessary

40 Marriage Rituals Marriage is considered a social contract, not a religious practice. The wedding ceremony may be simple or very elaborate. The rituals performed around the time of marriage vary from one community to another, but are numerous and may include some of the following:

41 Marriage Rituals Pre-Wedding -
Vagdana: Parents declare intended marriage Laghana Lekhan: marriage negotiation finalized Sagai and Lagna Patrika Vachan: engagement ceremonies/rituals Matruka and Kulkar Sthapan: gods and goddesses are invoked to bless the couple Wedding Ceremony – Ghudhchadi: groom’s ritual on the day before the wedding Vara Ghoda: the groom’s procession to the wedding Torana Vidhi: welcoming ceremony at the wedding Paraspara Mukh Avalokana: bride and groom look at each other

42 Marriage Rituals Hasta Melap: joining ceremony, priest’s words to the couple Toran Pratishtha: the goddess Lakshmi is honored Vedi Pratishtha: the gods of Kshetras are honored Agni Sthapan: sacred fire ritual; offerings to the fire god Abisheka: couple’s heads are anointed with water Gotrachar: lineages of the couple are pronounced Granthi Bandhan: ceremonial tying of the couple together Agni Pradakshina: the couple circles the sacred fire four times while reciting a different mantra each time around Kanyadaan: before the last stage of Agni Pradakshina, the father presents the bride to the groom

43 Marriage Rituals Vakshepa: “Lord Adinath was married with this ceremony…” Second Abisheka: priest wishes the couple well Kar-mochan: couple are released, ceremony is ended Post Wedding – Ashirvada: the elders bless the couple Reception: wedding feast Sva Graha Aagamana: bride goes to her new home. Jina Grahe Dhan Arpana: alms are given at a Jain temple in thankfulness to the gods

44 Death Rites When a person dies, he or she is cremated as soon as possible. The body is placed on a bier and taken to a place where it can be burned without harming any living beings. The body is taken from the bier and covered with wood. The body is covered with ghee, camphor, and sandalwood powder. The last rites are performed by the son of the deceased. The son circles the pyre 3 times while sprinkling water on the body. While chanting the Namokar Mantra, he lights the pyre. After a while, milk is poured over the scorched area and the remains are collected in bags. The remains are placed in hole and sprinkled with salt. The hole is covered and the rituals are over.

45 Reincarnation As soon as a person (or any living being) dies, his or her soul is immediately reborn in another life form. If one’s spirituality is such that it should require punishment, a person may be required to spend time in one of seven hells. Unlike most views of hell, each stage of hell becomes increasingly colder. One’s stay in hell is not eternal; once the punishment is sufficient, a person’s soul will be reborn into another life form. If people can escape all karma (good and bad), they will be reborn as a Siddhas, or liberated souls, in the highest level of heaven, where they will be eternally happy and separate from the world.

46 Major Tenets Everything is eternal; there is no all-powerful “God” that has created the world. When a living being dies, it is reincarnated. All living beings have souls. The 3 gems. Reverence for the deities (Siddhas, Jinas, and the 24 Tirthankaras). Vegetarianism, or Fruitarianism. The great vows, the Mahavrats.

47 The Sign of Jainism This is the sign of Jainism. Each part of the sign symbolizes an important principle or belief of Jainism. This symbol was adopted by all the sects of Jainism in honor of the 2500th anniversary of Lord Mahavira’s spiritual liberation.

48 How to Become a Jain Jainism is a distinctly Indian religion, although anyone who is willing to meet their strict requirements can become a Jain. The most fundamental belief of Jainism is Ahisma, complete non-violence toward all living beings. No other religion takes the principle of non-violence to the extent that the Jains do.

49 Requirements All Jains must:
Seek peace with their surroundings and be as non-violent as possible, Ahisma. Be truthful in everything, Satya. Deal honestly with people, they must not steal, Asteya. Practice the 3 Gems: Right faith, right conduct, right knowledge. The most important of these is faith, after it is obtained the others will follow.

50 Basic Philosophy of Jainism
Jainism is more than meeting certain criteria, it is epitomizing certain philosophies. Pure Darshan: pure vision Pure Gyan: pure reason/knowledge Pure Charitra: pure character

51 Jainism: The Indian Religion
Nearly all the people who practice Jainism live in India. The traditions and culture behind Jainism are distinctly Indian. However, there are small groups of followers in the U.S. and U.K.

52 Age Of Reason For Jains, salvation is an ongoing process of asceticism, renewal, and holy living. Because Jains do not “get saved” in the way that people of other religions do, they do not have an age of reasoning. If a very wise person is reincarnated as a baby person, that child may show wisdom and spirituality far beyond his or her years. Instruction in the ways of pure living is begun at an early age, usually as soon as the child is able to comprehend language. If a child dies, like any other living being, it is reincarnated immediately.

53 Is Jainism Growing? There are an estimated 4 million Jains in the world. Jainism is not a fast growing religion, although there has been a small increase in adherents in the U. S. and U. K. in the last 40 years. Jains do not actively seek to convert others to Jainism, rather they are peaceful and accepting towards all peoples and religions.

54 Chapter 5 Buddhism The life and legend of the Buddha The Dharma
Buddhism spreads abroad Buddhism in the West Socially engaged Buddhism

55 Key terms anatman (Pali: anatta) anitya (Pali: anicca)
arhant (Pali: arhat) bhikshu (Pali: bhikkhu; feminine: bhikshuni, bhikkhuni) bodhisattva deity yoga Dharma (Pali: Dhamma) dukkha karma kensho koan lama Mahayana nirvana Pali Canon samsara Sangha stupa sunyata Theravada Triple Gem Vajrayana vipassana zazen Zen

56 “When you open your mind to the truth, then you realize there is nothing to fear. What arises passes away, what is born dies, and is not self--so that our sense of being caught in an identity with this human body fades out. We don’t see ourselves as some isolated, alienated entity lost in a mysterious and frightening universe. We don’t feel overwhelmed by it, trying to find a little piece of it that we can grasp and feel safe with, because we feel at peace with it. Then we have merged with the Truth. Ajahn Sumedho, Buddhist monk

57 Beings are infinite in number,
Beings are infinite in number, I vow to save them all; The obstructive passions are endless in number, I vow to end them all; The teachings for saving others are countless, I vow to learn them all; Buddhahood is the supreme achievement, I vow to attain it. Tiantai Zhiyi The 4 Great Bodhisattva Vows

58 Timeline c. 5th century BCE c. 258 BCE c. 200 BCE-200 CE
c. 50 CE 1st century CE c c. 550 c 845 c 1959- Life of Siddhartha Gautama Buddha Ashoka spreads Buddhism outside India Theravada develops Perfection of Wisdom books develop Pali Canon written down in Sri Lanka Buddhism spreads to China, SE Asia Mahayana develops Life of Nagarjuna Buddhism enters Japan Songtsan establishes Tibetan Buddhism Chinese persecute Buddhism Life of Nichiren Buddhism declines in India China represses Tibetan Buddhism

59 The Life and legend of the Buddha
What we know about him has been passed down through his followers Prolific teachings passed down orally; written down hundreds of years after his death Followers have recalled his life in sacred biographies

60 The life and legend of the Buddha (continued)
Siddhartha led a sheltered life of luxury Left home and say the Four Sights: a bent aged man, a sick person, a corpse, and a monk Left home at 29 to wander as an ascetic Found extreme lifestyles did not answer his questions—led to the Middle Way: neither self-indulgence or self-denial

61 The life and legend of the Buddha (continued)
Vowed to site under tree at Gaya until enlightenment Experienced 4 states of contemplation and had 3 realizations, he could Recall all his past lives See the entire cycle of life and death See the cause of suffering and the means of ending it Siddhartha became the Buddha, the one who woke up

62 The life and legend of the Buddha (continued)
Spent the next 45 years teaching His teaching (dharma) included Four Noble Truths, the Nobel Eightfold Path, the Three Marks of Existence Some followers became monks (bhikshus); women were allowed to become nuns if they followed the 8 special rules Disciples (the sangha) accepted people from all castes and levels of society When the Buddha died, he told his followers to be responsible for their own spiritual development

63 The Dharma Buddhism is a non-theistic religion There is no personal god nor was Buddha a god or is worshipped Buddha was a man who attained enlightenment through meditation and showed the path to freedom

64 Anatta There is no immortal self A human being is a energy process composed of momentary flashes All human beings are interconnected with the universe as energy processes Nothing in the world is solid

65 Reincarnation Unlike the Hindu, Buddhism does not believe in an eternal soul But the rebirth process is because one changing state of being sets another into motion—karma Personality is created moment by moment

66 Vow of the Bodhisattva Beings are infinite in numbers, I vow to save them all; The obstructive passions are endless in number, I vow to end them all; The teachings for saving others are countless, I vow to learn them all; Buddhahood is the supreme achievement, I vow to attain it.

67 The Four Noble Truths Life inevitably involves suffering, is imperfect and unsatisfactory Suffering originates in our desires Suffering will cease if all desires cease There is a way to realize this state: the Noble Eightfold Path

68 The Noble Eightfold Path to Liberation
Right Understanding: realize and understand the Four Noble Truths Right Thought or Motives: uncover any unwholesome roots in one’s thinking, eliminate self-­centeredness Right Speech: abstain from lying, gossiping, speaking harshly, divisive speech Right Action: observe the Five Precepts, namely to avoid destroying life, stealing, sexual misconduct, lying, and intoxicants

69 The Noble Eightfold Path to Liberation (continued)
Right Livelihood: make a living without violating the Five Precepts Right Effort: eliminate impurities of the mind and cultivate wholesome actions Right Mindfulness: be aware in every moment, discipline the mind Right Meditation: quiet the mind through mental discipline

70 The Eight Worldly Pre-Occupations
Praise Gain Fame Pleasure Pain Disgrace Loss Blame

71 The Eight-fold Path

72 The Wheel of Birth and Death
No eternal, independently existing soul to be reborn Central cause is karma 3 root afflictions: greed, hate, and delusion Cultivating non-greed, non-hate, and non-delusion act as causes to leave the circle of birth and death

73 Mandalas are pictures of the mind and of the universe
Mandalas are pictures of the mind and of the universe. Moving out from the center, this wheel of samsara includes animals representing lust, hatred, and delusion, the fates of beings with good karma (left) and bad karma (right), the six kinds of birth from heaven to hell, the chain of cause and effect, and a monster grasping the wheel representing death and impermanence.

74 Theraveda: way of the elders Mayahana: great vehicle
Branches of Buddhism Theraveda: way of the elders Prevalent in Sri Lanka, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, Cambodia, Laos Mayahana: great vehicle Prevalent in China, Korea, Mongolia, Vietnam, Japan, Nepal, Tibet Both agree on basic concepts of Four Noble Truths, karma, samsara, nirvan

75 Approximate distribution of Theravada and Mahayana Buddhism.

76 Theraveda: The path of mindfulness
Devotional practices dominate Central text is the Pali Canon Triple Gem The Buddha The Dharma The Sangha

77 Mahayana: The path of compassion and wisdom
Focus on liberation of all beings Many Buddhas and bodhisattvas Buddha is an immanent presence in the universe Three bodies of Buddha Emptiness (sunyata)

78 Our word “zero” comes from the Arabic translation of the Sanskrit sunya, which means “empty.” Buddhists represented sunyata, “emptiness,” by a circle.

79 Other Branches Chan and Zen: the great way of enlightenment Pure Land: devotion to Amitabha Buddha Nichiren: salvation through the Lotus Sutra Vajrayana: the indestructible path

80 Om Mani Padme Hum (Purity…Jewel…Lotus…Indivisible) Means something like… If you practice the path with the complete union of compassion and wisdom, you can transform all impurities to become a Buddha.

81 The Two Truths: The Question of Inherent Existence
Conventional Wisdom Ultimate Wisdom

82 The Three Jewels Buddha Dharma Sangha

83 Spread of Buddhism

84 Delusions & emotional sickness prevail Violence is rampant
The Kali Yuga period… Our life-force is weak Delusions & emotional sickness prevail Violence is rampant False attitudes pretend to be true Advice: In a rotten society, the worst thing would be to follow the social norm.

85 Hinayana, Mahayana & Vajrayana
Vajrayana is the use of subtle vital energies to transform the mind. The gross mind is neutralized and the subtle mind “rides” on the clear light of bliss. This inner light is considered the only aspect of existence that is eternal. Once uncovered, one is said to be capable of attaining Buddha-hood.

86 In the practice of rituals, the diamond sceptre (vajra) symbolizes method and the bell wisdom. With their unification the human being obtains the insight that all dualities derive from Relative Truth and that, in Absolute Truth, subject and object, internal and external world, nirvana and samsara are one and empty.

87 The Dalai Lama As a Tulku

88 Wood Valley Temple

89 Zen Zen

90 Development of Zen Buddhism spread to China around the time of Christ It absorbed elements of the Tao Bodhidharma in 5th century first patriarch of Ch’an Buddhism - Zen

91 Qualities of Zen Dismisses all scriptures Relies on direct experience towards cosmic unity Zazen – to sit and gain absolute freedom to not allow any thought to disturb your original nature

92 Sengtsan The Great Way is not difficult for thos who have no preferences. When love and hate are both absent everything becomes clear and undisguised. 6th Patriarch of Zen


94 Stages of The Path

95 Satori “The moon is the same old moon, the flowers exactly as they were, Yet I’ve become the thingness of all the things I see!”

96 Pure Land Buddhism Modern Japan – needed Amida Buddha to save them rather than save themselves Pure Land is similar idea to Christian heaven

97 Nichiren 13th century Japanese fisherman Lotus Sutra Strive to save self and society “Namu myoho rengekyo”

98 Considerations… “Civilization has nothing to do with having electric lights, airplanes, or manufacturing atomic bombs. It has nothing to do with killing human beings, destroying things or waging war. Civilization is to hold one another in mutual affection and respect.”

99 Buddhism in the West 5 million Tibetan Buddhists in west Many vipassana retreats Thich Nhat Hanh – Vietnamese monk is author of many books

100 Engaged Buddhism “Not to respond to the suffering around us is a sign of an insane civilization.” Dulak Sivaraksa, founder

101 The Heart Sutra of Profound Illimination
…noble Avalokiteshvara, the bodhisattva mahasattva, said… Form is emptiness; emptiness also is form. Emptiness is no other than form; form is no other than emptiness.

102 In the same way, feeling, perception, formation, and consciousness are emptiness. Thus, …all dharmas are emptiness. There are no characteristics. There is no birth and no cessation. There is no impurity and no purity. There is no decrease and no increase.

103 …in emptiness, there is no form, no feeling, no perception, no formation, no consciousness…… no ignorance, no end of ignorance up to no old age and death, no end of old age and death; no suffering, no origin of suffering, no cessation of suffering, no path, no wisdom, no attainment, and no non-attainment.

104 Summary You are the source of suffering & liberation
A soft heart & quiet mind can see the truth Ignorance is a mistake in identity Truth sees the mistake & eliminates suffering Compassion & wisdom are the tools Vow of the Bodhisattva


106 In this 18th-century painting, Amida Buddha descends to welcome the faithful to his Western Paradise. Pure Land Buddhism taught that Amida saved all who called on his name.

107 Tibetan prostrates herself with wooden pads and canvas shield.

108 How does Buddhism differ from Hinduism?
Buddhism rejects… Authority of the ancient Vedic texts The Vedic caste system The Vedic and Hindu deities The efficacy of Vedic worship and ritual The concept of Brahman

109 How does Buddhism differ from Jainism?
Buddhism rejects… The concept of Atman The practice of strict asceticism and withdrawal from the world (preferring the “middle way”) Vegetarianism as required

110 What do Buddhists believe?
Rebirth (reincarnation) results from attachments (karma) Nirvana is a peaceful, detached state of mind Achieving Nirvana means escape from the cycle of rebirth Once Gautama Buddha died, after 80 years of life in this world, having achieved Nirvana and teaching multitudes his way of life, he ceased to exist as a distinct being Buddhism is non-theistic: Buddha is not the Buddhist God – he is just a revered teacher

111 Buddhism in the West Various forms of Buddhism have spread to the West
Exodus of thousands of Tibetans Efforts of Zen teachers Establishment of Theravada vipassana meditation centers Difficult to replicate the monastic traditions in a Western setting For immigrants maintaining Buddhist practices means maintaining cultural and ethnic traditions

112 Socially Engaged Buddhism
Emerging focus on the relevance of Buddhism to social problems

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