4 “Once when he [sat in meditation], his body unmoving, they cut his flesh, tore his hair, and covered him with dirt. They picked him up and then dropped him, disturbing his meditational postures. Abandoning concern for his body, free from desire, the Venerable One humbled himself and bore the pain.”Akaranga Sutra
5 “All breathing, existing, living, sentient creatures should not be slain, nor treated with violence, nor abused, nor tormented, nor driven away. This is the pure, unchangeable, eternal law....Correctly understanding the law, one should arrive at indifference for the impressions of the senses, and not act on the motives of the world.Akangara Sutra
6 Timeline before c. 777 BCE 599-527 BCE from 3rd century BCE 1970s-1980s CESeries of 23 TirthankarasLife of MahaviraDigambaras and Svetambaras divergeAcharya TulsiJain monks establish Jain centers outside India
7 The Tirthankaras and Ascetic Orders Mahavira, “The Great Hero,” is Jainism’s major teacher, a contemporary of the BuddhaMahavira is the twenty-fourth of the Tirthankaras, or “fordmakers,” considered by Jains to be great teachersAn ascetic path, Jainism is practiced in its fullest by monks and nunsSome adherents will carry the principle of nonviolence to wearing a gauze mask to avoid inhaling insects
8 The Tirthankaras and Ascetic Orders (continued) Jain nuns and monks are celibate; they fast, do penance, and learn to endure hardships with indifferenceDigambarasSvetambarasJainism, an ancient religion of India, holds a modern relevance in its gentle warnings of the importance of caring for all life
9 Mahavira (“great hero”), whose given name was Vardhamana, and who was born a kshatriya, founded Jainism in the 6th century BCE.
10 Jain nuns venerate small and colossal statues of Bahubali.
11 Freeing the Soul: the ethical pillars KarmaConsidered to be subtle matter that accumulates and clings to us as we think and actDistinguish between destructive and nondestructive typesMust be eliminated to attain kevala; three principlesAhimsa: nonviolenceAparigraha: nonattachmentAnekantwad: nonabsolutism
12 Jainism is practiced in its fullest by monks and nuns Spiritual PracticesJainism is practiced in its fullest by monks and nunsLaypeople seek to lead simple livesTheir homes are scrupulously cleanThey are strict vegetariansMedicines are prepared without cruel testing on animals
13 Spiritual Practices (continued) 12 “limited” vows Jain laypeople are to undertakeThe first 5 are most importantNonviolenceTruthfulnessNot taking anything that has not been givenRenouncing sexual activity outside of marriageLimiting one’s possessions
14 This 15th-century illustrated text of Mahavira shows a monk resisting the attractions of women.
15 Festivals and Pilgrimages Holy days are celebrated with meditation, renunciation, fasting, scriptural study, and hymnsCelebrate Divali but with a 3-day fast and an entire night of reciting hymns and meditating on MahavirMost important festival is Paryushan Mahaparva, an annual festival of atonementIndividuals, families, and groups may also go on pilgrimages to sacred sites
16 Ideally Jains worship without expecting personal response or help.
17 Has survived as a minority religion in India for most of its history World JainismHas survived as a minority religion in India for most of its historyHas been carried out of India by several teachersAcharya Tulsi initiated new orders of semi-monks and nunsAlso started the Anuvrat (small vow) Movement
18 Mahavira – last of 24Mahavira is regarded as the man who gave Jainism its present-day form; although this is true only in the widest sense. He is sometimes wrongly called "the founder of Jainism".
24 Spiritual PracticesCelibacy, penance, fastingNon-violence to all lifeUsually no clothingPurification for liberationNo external god
25 Small vows include…“…avoid willful killing of any innocent creature, to refrain from attacks and aggression and to work instead for world peace and disarmament, to avoid discrimination on the basis of cast or race, to eschew religions intolerance, to avoid false business and political practices….”
26 His Holiness Muni Shshil Kimarji “We believe that Lord Jesus Christ did come to India at a place called Pallipana…where there is a big Jain temple, and he came into contact with Jain monks whose main precepts are non-violence, peace and love.”His Holiness Muni Shshil Kimarji
27 “Jesus attained Christ consciousness at the age of twenty-five while in India. Thereafter, he returned to Palestine through Tibet, Afghanistan, Persia and areas we now know as Russia.”Sai Baba
28 Rites/Rituals/Ceremonies Communion with the Gods/Holy OnesBirthRites of Passage/Puberty RightsBaptismMarriage RitesDeath Rites
29 Communion with the Gods & Holy Ones The Jains commune with their deities by worshiping in temples, meditating, and reciting mantras.The Jains worship idols of Jinas, or “Spiritual Victors”. The most important of these Jinas are the Tirthankaras, or “Ford-Makers”, the 24 founders of Jainism.
30 Worship of the JinasThe Jains worship publicly in stone temples. They worship by meditating, chanting mantras, and by gazing at and anointing the 24 images of the Tirthankaras, the “Ford Makers”. They also pay homage to all Jinas, or “spiritual victors”.
31 Meditations & MantrasMeditation (samayika) is an integral part of Jainism. During meditation and worship, Jains often recite mantras or prayers.The most fundamental of the Jain mantras is the Navkar Mantra.
32 The Navkar Mantra Namo Arihantanum: I bow down to Arihanta Namo Siddhanam: I bow down to SiddhaNamo Ayariyanam: I bow down to AcharyaNamo Uvajjhayanam: I bow down to UpadhyayaNamo Loe Savva-sahunam: I bow down to Sadhu & Sadhvi.Eso Panch Namokaro: These five bowing downs,Savva-pavappanasano: Destroy all the sins,Manglanach Savvesim: Amongst all that is auspicious,Padhamam Havei Mangalam: This Navkar Mantra is the foremost.
33 Ahisma Ahisma is the practice of total non-violence. A major principle of Jainism is communion with one’s environment, or oneness with one’s surroundings; this is achieved through Ahisma.Ahisma is usually symbolized by a hand with the palm facing out, which means “stop”.
34 VegetariansBecause of Ahisma, Jains do not believe in harming living beings, which all have souls. This means that they do not eat meat, and many of them do not eat vegetables either.The strictest of the Jains eat only fruits, nuts, and milk, which are acceptable because they are the byproducts of livings beings, not the actual beings themselves.
35 KarmaKarma is the natural moral law of the universe, in which every good or bad action has a corresponding effect on the person doing that action.According to Jainism there are 2 types of Karma . Ghati (destructive) and Aghati (non-destructive), each containing several sub-categories.The goal of Jainism is to liberate one’s soul, to become a Jina (spiritual victor). To become a Jina, one must escape Karma by leading an ascetic and intrinsically pure life.
36 BirthThere are a few simple ritual that are performed after the birth of a childPriyodhbhav Sanskar: ten days of cleansing, during which no rituals are performed, but mantras may be chanted by the priests and offerings received for the child at a temple.Namkaranan Sanskar: the ritual of naming the child, performed on the 11th, 13th, or 29th after birth. The name for a boy is selected from the 1008 Jinasahasranam, and for girls chosen from the names of the woman in the Puranas.
37 Rites of Passage/Puberty Rites The rites of passage/puberty rites (concerning the laity) that Jains practice are not strictly practices of Jainism. Rather they are often the local Hindu customs. These customs are acceptable as long as the do not violate the ethics of Jainism.
38 Monks and NunsMonks and nuns must base their lives on mahavrats, or the “great vows”. These include:Not injuring any life forms, AhismaTruthfulness, SatyaNot stealing, AsteyaCelibacy, BrahmachangaNot accepting personal possessions, Aparigraha
39 Water RitualsThe Jains do not practice baptism. However, they do have rules that must be followed when using water.Water should be filtered before use to prevent harm to living creatures that may be in the waterSome stricter (more spiritual) Jains do not bathe and only use water as necessary
40 Marriage RitualsMarriage is considered a social contract, not a religious practice. The wedding ceremony may be simple or very elaborate.The rituals performed around the time of marriage vary from one community to another, but are numerous and may include some of the following:
41 Marriage Rituals Pre-Wedding - Vagdana: Parents declare intended marriageLaghana Lekhan: marriage negotiation finalizedSagai and Lagna Patrika Vachan: engagement ceremonies/ritualsMatruka and Kulkar Sthapan: gods and goddesses are invoked to bless the coupleWedding Ceremony –Ghudhchadi: groom’s ritual on the day before the weddingVara Ghoda: the groom’s procession to the weddingTorana Vidhi: welcoming ceremony at the weddingParaspara Mukh Avalokana: bride and groom look at each other
42 Marriage RitualsHasta Melap: joining ceremony, priest’s words to the coupleToran Pratishtha: the goddess Lakshmi is honoredVedi Pratishtha: the gods of Kshetras are honoredAgni Sthapan: sacred fire ritual; offerings to the fire godAbisheka: couple’s heads are anointed with waterGotrachar: lineages of the couple are pronouncedGranthi Bandhan: ceremonial tying of the couple togetherAgni Pradakshina: the couple circles the sacred fire four times while reciting a different mantra each time aroundKanyadaan: before the last stage of Agni Pradakshina, the father presents the bride to the groom
43 Marriage RitualsVakshepa: “Lord Adinath was married with this ceremony…”Second Abisheka: priest wishes the couple wellKar-mochan: couple are released, ceremony is endedPost Wedding –Ashirvada: the elders bless the coupleReception: wedding feastSva Graha Aagamana: bride goes to her new home.Jina Grahe Dhan Arpana: alms are given at a Jain temple in thankfulness to the gods
44 Death RitesWhen a person dies, he or she is cremated as soon as possible.The body is placed on a bier and taken to a place where it can be burned without harming any living beings.The body is taken from the bier and covered with wood. The body is covered with ghee, camphor, and sandalwood powder. The last rites are performed by the son of the deceased.The son circles the pyre 3 times while sprinkling water on the body. While chanting the Namokar Mantra, he lights the pyre.After a while, milk is poured over the scorched area and the remains are collected in bags.The remains are placed in hole and sprinkled with salt. The hole is covered and the rituals are over.
45 ReincarnationAs soon as a person (or any living being) dies, his or her soul is immediately reborn in another life form.If one’s spirituality is such that it should require punishment, a person may be required to spend time in one of seven hells. Unlike most views of hell, each stage of hell becomes increasingly colder. One’s stay in hell is not eternal; once the punishment is sufficient, a person’s soul will be reborn into another life form.If people can escape all karma (good and bad), they will be reborn as a Siddhas, or liberated souls, in the highest level of heaven, where they will be eternally happy and separate from the world.
46 Major TenetsEverything is eternal; there is no all-powerful “God” that has created the world.When a living being dies, it is reincarnated.All living beings have souls.The 3 gems.Reverence for the deities (Siddhas, Jinas, and the 24 Tirthankaras).Vegetarianism, or Fruitarianism.The great vows, the Mahavrats.
47 The Sign of JainismThis is the sign of Jainism. Each part of the sign symbolizes an important principle or belief of Jainism.This symbol was adopted by all the sects of Jainism in honor of the 2500th anniversary of Lord Mahavira’s spiritual liberation.
48 How to Become a JainJainism is a distinctly Indian religion, although anyone who is willing to meet their strict requirements can become a Jain.The most fundamental belief of Jainism is Ahisma, complete non-violence toward all living beings. No other religion takes the principle of non-violence to the extent that the Jains do.
49 Requirements All Jains must: Seek peace with their surroundings and be as non-violent as possible, Ahisma.Be truthful in everything, Satya.Deal honestly with people, they must not steal, Asteya.Practice the 3 Gems:Right faith, right conduct, right knowledge. The most important of these is faith, after it is obtained the others will follow.
50 Basic Philosophy of Jainism Jainism is more than meeting certain criteria, it is epitomizing certain philosophies.Pure Darshan: pure visionPure Gyan: pure reason/knowledgePure Charitra: pure character
51 Jainism: The Indian Religion Nearly all the people who practice Jainism live in India. The traditions and culture behind Jainism are distinctly Indian. However, there are small groups of followers in the U.S. and U.K.
52 Age Of ReasonFor Jains, salvation is an ongoing process of asceticism, renewal, and holy living.Because Jains do not “get saved” in the way that people of other religions do, they do not have an age of reasoning.If a very wise person is reincarnated as a baby person, that child may show wisdom and spirituality far beyond his or her years.Instruction in the ways of pure living is begun at an early age, usually as soon as the child is able to comprehend language.If a child dies, like any other living being, it is reincarnated immediately.
53 Is Jainism Growing?There are an estimated 4 million Jains in the world.Jainism is not a fast growing religion, although there has been a small increase in adherents in the U. S. and U. K. in the last 40 years.Jains do not actively seek to convert others to Jainism, rather they are peaceful and accepting towards all peoples and religions.
54 Chapter 5 Buddhism The life and legend of the Buddha The Dharma Buddhism spreads abroadBuddhism in the WestSocially engaged Buddhism
56 “When you open your mind to the truth, then you realize there is nothing to fear. What arises passes away, what is born dies, and is not self--so that our sense of being caught in an identity with this human body fades out. We don’t see ourselves as some isolated, alienated entity lost in a mysterious and frightening universe. We don’t feel overwhelmed by it, trying to find a little piece of it that we can grasp and feel safe with, because we feel at peace with it. Then we have merged with the Truth.Ajahn Sumedho, Buddhist monk
57 Beings are infinite in number, Beings are infinite in number, I vow to save them all; The obstructive passions are endless in number, I vow to end them all; The teachings for saving others are countless, I vow to learn them all; Buddhahood is the supreme achievement, I vow to attain it.Tiantai ZhiyiThe 4 Great Bodhisattva Vows
58 Timeline c. 5th century BCE c. 258 BCE c. 200 BCE-200 CE c. 50 CE1st century CEcc. 550c845c1959-Life of Siddhartha Gautama BuddhaAshoka spreads Buddhism outside IndiaTheravada developsPerfection of Wisdom books developPali Canon written down in Sri LankaBuddhism spreads to China, SE AsiaMahayana developsLife of NagarjunaBuddhism enters JapanSongtsan establishes Tibetan BuddhismChinese persecute BuddhismLife of NichirenBuddhism declines in IndiaChina represses Tibetan Buddhism
59 The Life and legend of the Buddha What we know about him has been passed down through his followersProlific teachings passed down orally; written down hundreds of years after his deathFollowers have recalled his life in sacred biographies
60 The life and legend of the Buddha (continued) Siddhartha led a sheltered life of luxuryLeft home and say the Four Sights: a bent aged man, a sick person, a corpse, and a monkLeft home at 29 to wander as an asceticFound extreme lifestyles did not answer his questions—led to the Middle Way: neither self-indulgence or self-denial
61 The life and legend of the Buddha (continued) Vowed to site under tree at Gaya until enlightenmentExperienced 4 states of contemplation and had 3 realizations, he couldRecall all his past livesSee the entire cycle of life and deathSee the cause of suffering and the means of ending itSiddhartha became the Buddha, the one who woke up
62 The life and legend of the Buddha (continued) Spent the next 45 years teachingHis teaching (dharma) included Four Noble Truths, the Nobel Eightfold Path, the Three Marks of ExistenceSome followers became monks (bhikshus); women were allowed to become nuns if they followed the 8 special rulesDisciples (the sangha) accepted people from all castes and levels of societyWhen the Buddha died, he told his followers to be responsible for their own spiritual development
63 The DharmaBuddhism is a non-theistic religionThere is no personal god nor was Buddha a god or is worshippedBuddha was a man who attained enlightenment through meditation and showed the path to freedom
64 AnattaThere is no immortal selfA human being is a energy process composed of momentary flashesAll human beings are interconnected with the universe as energy processesNothing in the world is solid
65 ReincarnationUnlike the Hindu, Buddhism does not believe in an eternal soulBut the rebirth process is because one changing state of being sets another into motion—karmaPersonality is created moment by moment
66 Vow of the BodhisattvaBeings are infinite in numbers, I vow to save them all;The obstructive passions are endless in number, I vow to end them all;The teachings for saving others are countless, I vow to learn them all;Buddhahood is the supreme achievement, I vow to attain it.
67 The Four Noble TruthsLife inevitably involves suffering, is imperfect and unsatisfactorySuffering originates in our desiresSuffering will cease if all desires ceaseThere is a way to realize this state: the Noble Eightfold Path
68 The Noble Eightfold Path to Liberation Right Understanding: realize and understand the Four Noble TruthsRight Thought or Motives: uncover any unwholesome roots in one’s thinking, eliminate self-centerednessRight Speech: abstain from lying, gossiping, speaking harshly, divisive speechRight Action: observe the Five Precepts, namely to avoid destroying life, stealing, sexual misconduct, lying, and intoxicants
69 The Noble Eightfold Path to Liberation (continued) Right Livelihood: make a living without violating the Five PreceptsRight Effort: eliminate impurities of the mind and cultivate wholesome actionsRight Mindfulness: be aware in every moment, discipline the mindRight Meditation: quiet the mind through mental discipline
70 The Eight Worldly Pre-Occupations PraiseGainFamePleasurePainDisgraceLossBlame
72 The Wheel of Birth and Death No eternal, independently existing soul to be rebornCentral cause is karma3 root afflictions: greed, hate, and delusionCultivating non-greed, non-hate, and non-delusion act as causes to leave the circle of birth and death
73 Mandalas are pictures of the mind and of the universe Mandalas are pictures of the mind and of the universe. Moving out from the center, this wheel of samsara includes animals representing lust, hatred, and delusion, the fates of beings with good karma (left) and bad karma (right), the six kinds of birth from heaven to hell, the chain of cause and effect, and a monster grasping the wheel representing death and impermanence.
74 Theraveda: way of the elders Mayahana: great vehicle Branches of BuddhismTheraveda: way of the eldersPrevalent in Sri Lanka, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, Cambodia, LaosMayahana: great vehiclePrevalent in China, Korea, Mongolia, Vietnam, Japan, Nepal, TibetBoth agree on basic concepts of Four Noble Truths, karma, samsara, nirvan
75 Approximate distribution of Theravada and Mahayana Buddhism.
76 Theraveda: The path of mindfulness Devotional practices dominateCentral text is the Pali CanonTriple GemThe BuddhaThe DharmaThe Sangha
77 Mahayana: The path of compassion and wisdom Focus on liberation of all beingsMany Buddhas and bodhisattvasBuddha is an immanent presence in the universeThree bodies of BuddhaEmptiness (sunyata)
78 Our word “zero” comes from the Arabic translation of the Sanskrit sunya, which means “empty.” Buddhists represented sunyata, “emptiness,” by a circle.
79 Other BranchesChan and Zen: the great way of enlightenmentPure Land: devotion to Amitabha BuddhaNichiren: salvation through the Lotus SutraVajrayana: the indestructible path
80 Om Mani Padme Hum(Purity…Jewel…Lotus…Indivisible)Means something like…If you practice the path with the complete union of compassion and wisdom, you can transform all impurities to become a Buddha.
81 The Two Truths: The Question of Inherent Existence Conventional WisdomUltimate Wisdom
84 Delusions & emotional sickness prevail Violence is rampant The Kali Yuga period…Our life-force is weakDelusions & emotional sickness prevailViolence is rampantFalse attitudes pretend to be trueAdvice: In a rotten society, the worst thing would be to follow the social norm.
85 Hinayana, Mahayana & Vajrayana Vajrayana is the use of subtle vital energies to transform the mind. The gross mind is neutralized and the subtle mind “rides” on the clear light of bliss. This inner light is considered the only aspect of existence that is eternal. Once uncovered, one is said to be capable of attaining Buddha-hood.
86 In the practice of rituals, the diamond sceptre (vajra) symbolizes method and the bell wisdom. With their unification the human being obtains the insight that all dualities derive from Relative Truth and that, in Absolute Truth, subject and object, internal and external world, nirvana and samsara are one and empty.
95 Satori“The moon is the same old moon, the flowers exactly as they were,Yet I’ve become the thingness of all the things I see!”
96 Pure Land BuddhismModern Japan – needed Amida Buddha to save them rather than save themselvesPure Land is similar idea to Christian heaven
97 Nichiren13th century Japanese fishermanLotus SutraStrive to save self and society“Namu myoho rengekyo”
98 Considerations…“Civilization has nothing to do with having electric lights, airplanes, or manufacturing atomic bombs. It has nothing to do with killing human beings, destroying things or waging war. Civilization is to hold one another in mutual affection and respect.”
99 Buddhism in the West5 million Tibetan Buddhists in westMany vipassana retreatsThich Nhat Hanh – Vietnamese monk is author of many books
100 Engaged Buddhism“Not to respond to the suffering around us is a sign of an insane civilization.”Dulak Sivaraksa, founder
101 The Heart Sutra of Profound Illimination …noble Avalokiteshvara, the bodhisattva mahasattva, said… Form is emptiness; emptiness also is form. Emptiness is no other than form; form is no other than emptiness.
102 In the same way, feeling, perception, formation, and consciousness are emptiness. Thus, …all dharmas are emptiness. There are no characteristics. There is no birth and no cessation. There is no impurity and no purity. There is no decrease and no increase.
103 …in emptiness, there is no form, no feeling, no perception, no formation, no consciousness…… no ignorance, no end of ignorance up to no old age and death, no end of old age and death; no suffering, no origin of suffering, no cessation of suffering, no path, no wisdom, no attainment, and no non-attainment.
104 Summary You are the source of suffering & liberation A soft heart & quiet mind can see the truthIgnorance is a mistake in identityTruth sees the mistake & eliminates sufferingCompassion & wisdom are the toolsVow of the Bodhisattva
106 In this 18th-century painting, Amida Buddha descends to welcome the faithful to his Western Paradise. Pure Land Buddhism taught that Amida saved all who called on his name.
107 Tibetan prostrates herself with wooden pads and canvas shield.
108 How does Buddhism differ from Hinduism? Buddhism rejects…Authority of the ancient Vedic textsThe Vedic caste systemThe Vedic and Hindu deitiesThe efficacy of Vedic worship and ritualThe concept of Brahman
109 How does Buddhism differ from Jainism? Buddhism rejects…The concept of AtmanThe practice of strict asceticism and withdrawal from the world (preferring the “middle way”)Vegetarianism as required
110 What do Buddhists believe? Rebirth (reincarnation) results from attachments (karma)Nirvana is a peaceful, detached state of mindAchieving Nirvana means escape from the cycle of rebirthOnce Gautama Buddha died, after 80 years of life in this world, having achieved Nirvana and teaching multitudes his way of life, he ceased to exist as a distinct beingBuddhism is non-theistic: Buddha is not the Buddhist God – he is just a revered teacher
111 Buddhism in the West Various forms of Buddhism have spread to the West Exodus of thousands of TibetansEfforts of Zen teachersEstablishment of Theravada vipassana meditation centersDifficult to replicate the monastic traditions in a Western settingFor immigrants maintaining Buddhist practices means maintaining cultural and ethnic traditions
112 Socially Engaged Buddhism Emerging focus on the relevance of Buddhism to social problems