Presentation on theme: "Rites/Rituals/Ceremonies"— Presentation transcript:
1Rites/Rituals/Ceremonies Communion with the Gods/Holy OnesBirthRites of Passage/Puberty RightsBaptismMarriage RitesDeath RitesPrepared by Eddie STUDENT for MW 11:00 Philosophy
2Communion with the Gods & Holy Ones The Jains commune with their deities by worshiping in temples, meditating, and reciting mantras.The Jains worship idols of Jinas, or “Spiritual Victors”. The most important of these Jinas are the Tirthankaras, or “Ford-Makers”, the 24 founders of Jainism.
3Worship of the JinasThe Jains worship publicly in stone temples. They worship by meditating, chanting mantras, and by gazing at and anointing the 24 images of the Tirthankaras, the “Ford Makers”. They also pay homage to all Jinas, or “spiritual victors”.
4Meditations & MantrasMeditation (samayika) is an integral part of Jainism. During meditation and worship, Jains often recite mantras or prayers.The most fundamental of the Jain mantras is the Navkar Mantra.
5The Navkar Mantra Namo Arihantanum: I bow down to Arihanta Namo Siddhanam: I bow down to SiddhaNamo Ayariyanam: I bow down to AcharyaNamo Uvajjhayanam: I bow down to UpadhyayaNamo Loe Savva-sahunam: I bow down to Sadhu & Sadhvi.Eso Panch Namokaro: These five bowing downs,Savva-pavappanasano: Destroy all the sins,Manglanach Savvesim: Amongst all that is auspicious,Padhamam Havei Mangalam: This Navkar Mantra is the foremost.
6Ahisma Ahisma is the practice of total non-violence. A major principle of Jainism is communion with one’s environment, or oneness with one’s surroundings; this is achieved through Ahisma.Ahisma is usually symbolized by a hand with the palm facing out, which means “stop”.
7VegetariansBecause of Ahisma, Jains do not believe in harming living beings, which all have souls. This means that they do not eat meat, and many of them do not eat vegetables either.The strictest of the Jains eat only fruits, nuts, and milk, which are acceptable because they are the byproducts of livings beings, not the actual beings themselves.
8KarmaKarma is the natural moral law of the universe, in which every good or bad action has a corresponding effect on the person doing that action.According to Jainism there are 2 types of Karma . Ghati (destructive) and Aghati (non-destructive), each containing several sub-categories.The goal of Jainism is to liberate one’s soul, to become a Jina (spiritual victor). To become a Jina, one must escape Karma by leading an ascetic and intrinsically pure life.
9BirthThere are a few simple ritual that are performed after the birth of a childPriyodhbhav Sanskar: ten days of cleansing, during which no rituals are performed, but mantras may be chanted by the priests and offerings received for the child at a temple.Namkaranan Sanskar: the ritual of naming the child, performed on the 11th, 13th, or 29th after birth. The name for a boy is selected from the 1008 Jinasahasranam, and for girls chosen from the names of the woman in the Puranas.
10Rites of Passage/Puberty Rites The rites of passage/puberty rites (concerning the laity) that Jains practice are not strictly practices of Jainism. Rather they are often the local Hindu customs. These customs are acceptable as long as the do not violate the ethics of Jainism.
11Monks and NunsMonks and nuns must base their lives on mahavrats, or the “great vows”. These include:Not injuring any life forms, AhismaTruthfulness, SatyaNot stealing, AsteyaCelibacy, BrahmachangaNot accepting personal possessions, Aparigraha
12BaptismThe Jains do not practice baptism. However, they do have rules that must be followed when using water.Water should be filtered before use to prevent harm to living creatures that may be in the waterSome stricter (more spiritual) Jains do not bathe and only use water as necessary
13Marriage RitualsMarriage is considered a social contract, not a religious practice. The wedding ceremony may be simple or very elaborate.The rituals performed around the time of marriage vary from one community to another, but are numerous and may include some of the following:
14Marriage Rituals Pre-Wedding - Vagdana: Parents declare intended marriageLaghana Lekhan: marriage negotiation finalizedSagai and Lagna Patrika Vachan: engagement ceremonies/ritualsMatruka and Kulkar Sthapan: gods and goddesses are invoked to bless the coupleWedding Ceremony –Ghudhchadi: groom’s ritual on the day before the weddingVara Ghoda: the groom’s procession to the weddingTorana Vidhi: welcoming ceremony at the weddingParaspara Mukh Avalokana: bride and groom look at each other
15Marriage RitualsHasta Melap: joining ceremony, priest’s words to the coupleToran Pratishtha: the goddess Lakshmi is honoredVedi Pratishtha: the gods of Kshetras are honoredAgni Sthapan: sacred fire ritual; offerings to the fire godAbisheka: couple’s heads are anointed with waterGotrachar: lineages of the couple are pronouncedGranthi Bandhan: ceremonial tying of the couple togetherAgni Pradakshina: the couple circles the sacred fire four times while reciting a different mantra each time aroundKanyadaan: before the last stage of Agni Pradakshina, the father presents the bride to the groom
16Marriage RitualsVakshepa: “Lord Adinath was married with this ceremony…”Second Abisheka: priest wishes the couple wellKar-mochan: couple are released, ceremony is endedPost Wedding –Ashirvada: the elders bless the coupleReception: wedding feastSva Graha Aagamana: bride goes to her new home.Jina Grahe Dhan Arpana: alms are given at a Jain temple in thankfulness to the gods
17Death RitesWhen a person dies, he or she is cremated as soon as possible.The body is placed on a bier and taken to a place where it can be burned without harming any living beings.The body is taken from the bier and covered with wood. The body is covered with ghee, camphor, and sandalwood powder. The last rites are performed by the son of the deceased.The son circles the pyre 3 times while sprinkling water on the body. While chanting the Namokar Mantra, he lights the pyre.After a while, milk is poured over the scorched area and the remains are collected in bags.The remains are placed in hole and sprinkled with salt. The hole is covered and the rituals are over.
18ReincarnationAs soon as a person (or any living being) dies, his or her soul is immediately reborn in another life form.If one’s spirituality is such that it should require punishment, a person may be required to spend time in one of seven hells. Unlike most views of hell, each stage of hell becomes increasingly colder. One’s stay in hell is not eternal; once the punishment is sufficient, a person’s soul will be reborn into another life form.If people can escape all karma (good and bad), they will be reborn as a Siddhas, or liberated souls, in the highest level of heaven, where they will be eternally happy and separate from the world.
19Major TenetsEverything is eternal; there is no all-powerful “God” that has created the world.When a living being dies, it is reincarnated.All living beings have souls.The 3 gems.Reverence for the deities (Siddhas, Jinas, and the 24 Tirthankaras).Vegetarianism, or Fruitarianism.The great vows, the Mahavrats.
20The Sign of JainismThis is the sign of Jainism. Each part of the sign symbolizes an important principle or belief of Jainism.This symbol was adopted by all the sects of Jainism in honor of the 2500th anniversary of Lord Mahavira’s spiritual liberation.
21How to Become a JainJainism is a distinctly Indian religion, although anyone who is willing to meet their strict requirements can become a Jain.The most fundamental belief of Jainism is Ahisma, complete non-violence toward all living beings. No other religion takes the principle of non-violence to the extent that the Jains do.
22Requirements All Jains must: Seek peace with their surroundings and be as non-violent as possible, Ahisma.Be truthful in everything, Satya.Deal honestly with people, they must not steal, Asteya.Practice the 3 Gems:Right faith, right conduct, right knowledge. The most important of these is faith, after it is obtained the others will follow.
23Basic Philosophy of Jainism Jainism is more than meeting certain criteria, it is epitomizing certain philosophies.Pure Darshan: pure visionPure Gyan: pure reason/knowledgePure Charitra: pure character
24Jainism: The Indian Religion Nearly all the people who practice Jainism live in India. The traditions and culture behind Jainism are distinctly Indian. However, there are small groups of followers in the U.S. and U.K.
25Age Of ReasonFor Jains, salvation is an ongoing process of asceticism, renewal, and holy living.Because Jains do not “get saved” in the way that people of other religions do, they do not have an age of reasoning.If a very wise person is reincarnated as a baby person, that child may show wisdom and spirituality far beyond his or her years.Instruction in the ways of pure living is begun at an early age, usually as soon as the child is able to comprehend language.If a child dies, like any other living being, it is reincarnated immediately.
26Is Jainism Growing?There are an estimated 4 million Jains in the world.Jainism is not a fast growing religion, although there has been a small increase in adherents in the U. S. and U. K. in the last 40 years.Jains do not actively seek to convert others to Jainism, rather they are peaceful and accepting towards all peoples and religions.