2 The Male Reproductive System Reaches maturity during early teen yearsThe testes begin to produce testosterone (male sex hormone)Testosterone initiates physical changes such as broadening of shoulders, development of muscles, facial and other body hair, and deepening of the voice.Testosterone also causes the production of sperm (male reproductive cells)The Male Reproductive System
3 Testes: also known as testicles Two small glands that produce sperm100 million a dayHang outside of the body in a sac called the scrotumThe scrotum protects sperm by keeping the testes at a temp below normal body temp.Tight clothing around testes can interfere with sperm production.
4 External Male Reproductive Organs Penis: a tube shaped organ attached to the trunk of the body just above the testes.Composed of spongy tissue with many blood vesselsWith increased blood flow, the penis becomes enlarged and erectErections can happen due to friction of clothing, for not reason at all, or because of sexual arousalExternal Male Reproductive Organs
5 At the height of sexual arousal, a series of muscular contractions known as ejaculation may occur. During ejaculation, semen-a thick fluid containing sperm and other secretions- is propelled from the penis.If this happens during sexual intercourse, fertilization may be initiated.Fertilization is the union of a reproductive cell from a male and one from a female.
6 External Male Reproductive Organs Circumcision – surgical removal of the foreskin covering the tip of the penisThis is usually a parental decision that happens at the birth.External Male Reproductive Organs
7 Internal Male Reproductive Organs Urethra – moves liquid wasteEpididymis – large coiled tube connected to the tubes in the testes. It is a temporary storage facility for sperm. Sperm mature here.Vas deferens – pair of connecting tubes that lead to the seminal vesicles and the prostate gland.Thick muscular walls of the vas deferens propel sperm forward then it is combined with a fluid produced by the seminal vesicles.Internal Male Reproductive Organs
8 This fluid contains nutrients and mixes with the sperm to make it more mobile. Vas deferens and seminal vesicles meet to form the ejaculatory duct.
9 As the sperm continues to travel, it is then mixed with fluid from the prostate gland (small gland that surrounds the urethra) and fluid from the Cowper’s glands (located below the prostate gland).Semen is now formed.Semen and urine leave the body via the urethra.
10 Care of the Male Reproductive System CleanlinessShower dailyClean the penis and scrotumUncircumcised males must practice extra hygieneProtectionWear a protector or supporter during strenuous activity to help shield the groinSelf-examinationMonthly to check for signs of cancerLumps, thickenings, or change in texture or size of testesCare of the Male Reproductive System
11 STDsInguinal hernia – near the top of the scrotum – sometimes the abdomen can tear and part of the intestine pushed through. Surgery is necessary.Sterility – inability to reproduceEnlarged prostate gland – caused by infections, old age, or tumorsProstate cancer – 2nd highest incidence of cancer in malesCancer of the testes – occurs frequently in males in the U.S. First sign is slight enlargement of one testicle.Problems
12 The Female Reproductive System Ova – female reproductive cellsSperm enters through the vagina- a muscular, elastic passageway that extends from the uterus to the outside of the bodyOva are stored in the ovaries- the female sex glandThe two ovaries are located in the lower abdominal areaThe Female Reproductive System
13 Ovulation – process of releasing one mature ovum each month When a mature ovum is released, it moves into the fallopian tubes- pair of tubes with fingerlike projections that draw the ovum in.
14 Fertilization occurs in the fallopian tubes Zygote – cell that results from the union of an ovum and spermUterus – small, pear-shaped, muscular organ where the zygote travels to and attaches itself
15 If the ovum does not become fertilized then the lining of the uterus breaks down into blood, tissue, and fluids which pass through the cervix- neck of the uterusMenstrual flow happens once a month and lasts 3-5 daysAfter the menstrual cycle ends, the process begins again. The uterus lining thickens again preparing for the possibility of receiving a fertilized egg.Most females start between the ages of 10 and 15The menstrual cycle may be irregular at firstPoor nutrition, stress, and illness can affect the cycleMenstruation
16 Care of the Female Reproductive System CleanlinessVagina is a self-cleansing organSlight vaginal discharge is normalEspecially important during menstrual cycleSanitary napkins (pads) and tampons must be changed every few hoursBreast examinations are importantShould be done once a monthIn the shower, in front of a mirror, or lying downCare of the Female Reproductive System
17 Problems Menstrual Cramps – abdominal cramps Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) – several days to 2 weeks before the menstrual periodNervous tension, mood swings, irritability, anxiety, depression, fatigue, etcToxic Shock Syndrome (TSS) – rare but serious disease that may be fatalPresence of the bacterium Staphylococcus aureusSigns include aching muscles, bloodshot eyes, sore throat, fever, vomiting, rash, etcProblems
18 Problems That Can Cause Infertility Blocked Fallopian Tubes – leading cause of infertilityEndometriosis – uterine tissue grows outside of the uterusPelvic Inflammatory Disease – infection of the fallopian tubes, ovaries and surrounding areas. Usually caused by STDsOvarian cysts – fluid-filled sac on the ovaryCervical cancer – early sexual activity and family history are related to an increased incidence of cervical cancerPap tests help detectProblems That Can Cause Infertility