2HIGH ANGLE RESCUES Rope Rescues Often called Vertical Rescue, Technical Rescue or High Angle RescueUse of rope to stabilize and move a victim to safetyThese rescues require many elements such as rope, hardware, and anchors. When these elements are combined to construct a functioning unit they are referred to as “systems”“SRT” – Single Rope Technique is a term that refers to ascending and descending directly on rope without direct aid by contact with the rock, walls, or structures.
3HIGH ANGLE RESCUES Fire Service Rescue Many changes since tragic incident in New York City in June of 1980IAFF, NFPA and ISFSI are active in advances in safetyNFPA 1983 was established to create safety standards for rope rescue equipmentMost significant change was in use of natural fiber ropes for rescueNatural fiber rope was determined to be a primary contributing factor in the death of the FDNY firefighters.
4HIGH ANGLE RESCUES Industrial Rescue High potential for high angle incidents in the industrial environmentConfined Space Rescue – specialized industrial rescue operationDue to high death rates, OSHA created specific lawsSafety standards can be overlooked in industrial settings due to lack of management and training and propensity to have a “get the job done” attitude.
5HIGH ANGLE RESCUES Tactical Operations Law enforcement and military are employing more high angle operationsContributions from tactical groups in equipment developmentSpecial Air Service (SAS) in England credited for the Figure 8 with ears descenders
6STANDARDS NFPA 1006 NFPA 1983 NFPA 1670 Rescue Technician Professional QualificationsNFPA 1670Operations and Training for Technical Rescue IncidentsNFPA 1983Fire Service Life Safety Rope and System ComponentsSTANDARDSThree predominant standards for rope and technical rescue for the fire service.NFPA 1006 is the primary standard that is referenced for skill sets and knowledge requirements for individual rescuers.
7Rescue Technician Professional Qualifications NFPA 1006Standard forRescue Technician Professional QualificationsStandards that describe specific skill setsLevel I – Awareness and OperationsLevel II - TechnicianRescue personnel shall be referenced based on their certification level in a specific discipline. To be a certified rescue technician one must meet prerequisites established in Ch 4 and Ch 5 and all of the general requirements for the 6 primary disciplines in chapters
8Standard on Operations and Training for Technical Rescue Incidents NFPA 1670Standard on Operations and Training for Technical Rescue IncidentsStandards that describe procedures, guidelines and tactics for training and response.Standard that is very useful in developing departmental or team SOP’s, training guidelines, equipment caches and strategy and tactics.1670 references Awareness, Operations, and Technician which no longer correlates to levels referenced in 1006 – Level I, Level II
9Life Safety Rope and Equipment for Emergency Services NFPA 1983Life Safety Rope and Equipment for Emergency ServicesLabeling requirementsDesign and construction requirementsPerformance requirementsTesting requirements
10Safety Factors Industry and Construction Mountaineering / Self Rescue 5:1Mountaineering / Self Rescue10:1NFPA / RescueNFPA 1983 utilizes the term “Design Load” to describe the load for which a given piece of equipment or manufactured system was engineered for under normal static conditions.15:1 (This is an approximate factor based on the following coefficients that varies slightly per NFPA.)“L” Design Load – 300# Coefficient“G” Design Load – 600# CoefficientThe weight of the load may be less or greater than the given coefficient and should be calculated accordingly to insure safe equipment application.Discuss the importance of safety factors and the role they play in proper selection and application of equipment
11Safety FactorsUtilize graph to illustrate the significant difference in product design requirements between the three categories
12Fall FactorsThe fall factor calculation is used to estimate the impact force on a rope when it is subjected to stopping a falling mass (“impact load”)Calculated by dividing distance fallen by length of rope used to arrest the fall.25 and above consider high stretch ropes per NFPA 1983This can be applied by considering ¼ the overall length of rope as the maximum allowable fall distance.This factor applies to dynamic rope and the given calculation does not accurately correlate to static rope. Fall factor calculations should be utilized as a general principle for safe practices.Impact load is also referred to as shock loadFall Factors of greater than .25 will result in serious trauma or death and potential catastrophic failure of rigging elementsThis factor applies to dynamic rope and the given calculation does not accurately correlate to static rope. Fall factor calculations should be utilized as a general principle for safe practices.
13FALL FACTORS Use the following: Given a 100’ section of rope anchored at 100’ heightA: FF = 1.0B: FF = 0.75C: FF = 2.0D: FF = 1.25
14Standards Agencies that set standards other than NFPA and OSHA ASTM CE International organization that sets high angle standards related to search and rescue, recreational climbing, and arboricultureCEEuropean organization that sets high angle standards for recreational climbing, industrial fall protection, and rope accessUIAAInternational organization that sets standards for ropes, harnesses, ice axes, helmets, and carabiners to be used by climbers and mountaineers.
15Terms and References Relevant to SF and FF calculations. kN = KiloNewtonConversion factor to lbs. = 225 (estimate)Common benchmarks are 20 kn and 40 kn which correlate to 4500 lbs. and 9000 lbs.MBS = Minimum break strengthRepresents the TS of a material at failureTS = Tensile StrengthRepresents a measurement of the greatest lengthwise stress under slow pull conditions that a rope can resist without failing225 conversion factor is not exact but very close estimating toolCommon benchmarks create basic estimating margins for one and two person load designs in relation to NFPA safety factors