Presentation on theme: "HIGH ANGLE RESCUES Rope Rescues Often called Vertical Rescue, Technical Rescue or High Angle Rescue Use of rope to stabilize and move a victim to safety."— Presentation transcript:
HIGH ANGLE RESCUES Rope Rescues Often called Vertical Rescue, Technical Rescue or High Angle Rescue Use of rope to stabilize and move a victim to safety These rescues require many elements such as rope, hardware, and anchors. When these elements are combined to construct a functioning unit they are referred to as “systems” “SRT” – Single Rope Technique is a term that refers to ascending and descending directly on rope without direct aid by contact with the rock, walls, or structures.
HIGH ANGLE RESCUES Fire Service Rescue Many changes since tragic incident in New York City in June of 1980 IAFF, NFPA and ISFSI are active in advances in safety NFPA 1983 was established to create safety standards for rope rescue equipment Most significant change was in use of natural fiber ropes for rescue
HIGH ANGLE RESCUES Industrial Rescue High potential for high angle incidents in the industrial environment Confined Space Rescue – specialized industrial rescue operation Due to high death rates, OSHA created specific laws
HIGH ANGLE RESCUES Tactical Operations Law enforcement and military are employing more high angle operations Contributions from tactical groups in equipment development Special Air Service (SAS) in England credited for the Figure 8 with ears descenders
NFPA 1006 Standard for Rescue Technician Professional Qualifications Standards that describe specific skill sets Level I – Awareness and Operations Level II - Technician
NFPA 1670 Standard on Operations and Training for Technical Rescue Incidents Standards that describe procedures, guidelines and tactics for training and response.
NFPA 1983 Life Safety Rope and Equipment for Emergency Services Labeling requirements Design and construction requirements Performance requirements Testing requirements
Safety Factors Industry and Construction 5:1 Mountaineering / Self Rescue 10:1 NFPA / Rescue NFPA 1983 utilizes the term “Design Load” to describe the load for which a given piece of equipment or manufactured system was engineered for under normal static conditions. 15:1 (This is an approximate factor based on the following coefficients that varies slightly per NFPA.) “L” Design Load – 300# Coefficient “G” Design Load – 600# Coefficient The weight of the load may be less or greater than the given coefficient and should be calculated accordingly to insure safe equipment application.
Fall Factors The fall factor calculation is used to estimate the impact force on a rope when it is subjected to stopping a falling mass (“impact load”) Calculated by dividing distance fallen by length of rope used to arrest the fall.25 and above consider high stretch ropes per NFPA 1983 This can be applied by considering ¼ the overall length of rope as the maximum allowable fall distance. This factor applies to dynamic rope and the given calculation does not accurately correlate to static rope. Fall factor calculations should be utilized as a general principle for safe practices.
Standards Agencies that set standards other than NFPA and OSHA ASTM International organization that sets high angle standards related to search and rescue, recreational climbing, and arboriculture CE European organization that sets high angle standards for recreational climbing, industrial fall protection, and rope access UIAA International organization that sets standards for ropes, harnesses, ice axes, helmets, and carabiners to be used by climbers and mountaineers.
Terms and References Relevant to SF and FF calculations. kN = KiloNewton Conversion factor to lbs. = 225 (estimate) Common benchmarks are 20 kn and 40 kn which correlate to 4500 lbs. and 9000 lbs. MBS = Minimum break strength Represents the TS of a material at failure TS = Tensile Strength Represents a measurement of the greatest lengthwise stress under slow pull conditions that a rope can resist without failing