Presentation on theme: "Confined Rescue – A Timeline to Rescue"— Presentation transcript:
1Confined Rescue – A Timeline to Rescue andRescue SystemsBy Michael LafreniereOhio University-ChillicotheEnvironmental Training and Research Center (ETRC)
2Defining Response Time Reaction TimeContact TimeResponse TimeAssessment TimePreparation TimeRescue Time
3Reaction TimeTime between the entrant having a problem requiring rescue and the safety attendant’s recognition that the entrant has problem
4Contact TimeThe time taken by the attendant to contact the rescue team.
5Response TimeThe time taken by the rescuers to arrive at the scene of the rescue after contact.
6Assessment TimeThe time taken by a rescue team to size up the problem and determine the strategy to perform a safe, efficient rescue
7Preparation TimeThe time take by a rescue team to set up for the rescue.
8Rescue TimeThe time taken for the team to reach, treat, package, and evacuate the victim from the confined space.
9Untimely Rescue Response CPR Emergency – Goal: 4 minutesOSHA PreambleGolden HourPatient delivery within an hour of the injuryExampleFalls off a ladderBroken Bones
10Rescue Response Time Goals On-Site TeamAlmost impossible to respond to a rescue summons and reach a victim within OSHA’s goal of 4 minutesUnless using Rescue-Standby (team is already set up)Appropriate GoalInitiate patient transport to the hospital within minutes of the incident
11Rescue Response Time Goal 0 – 3 minutesPermit-Required Confined Space incident occurs and rescue team is called3 – 13 minutes (10 min. duration)Rescue Team Arrives at the Scene13 – 23 minutes (10 min. duration)Rescue Team Sizes up and Prepares to initiate rescue23 – 38 minutes (15 min. duration)Rescue team reaches and rescues patient.38 – 53 minutes (15 min. duration)Patient is transported and arrives at emergency room
12Rescue Response Decision-Making Criteria Rescue Standby (RS)Requires team to be present and able to enter the space immediately and reach the patient in 2 to 4 minutesRescue Available (RA)Requires the team to be able to respond to the entry site in about 10 minutes and reach the patient approximately 5 minutes later.Can Catergorize PRCS – PrePlanBest to assign on an entry by entry basis
13Rescue Response Categories Rescue AvailableDo not require entrants to wear fresh air breathing equipmentDo not expose the entrant to any obvious IDLH or potential IDLH hazardDo not warrant rescue personnel standing by during the entry, andDo not require the entrant to have assistance to exit the space, under normal circumstances
14Rescue Response Categories Space in which entrants are required to use fresh air breathing equipmentSpaces in which an obvious IDLH hazard exists or potentially exists, and/orSpaces from which an entrant would be expected to have difficulty exiting without help
15Determining Rescue Response Entry Supervisor must decide for each entryThree questions should be askedIs the hazard or potential hazard immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH)?Is breathing air required for entry?Would the entrant have difficulty exiting the space unassisted?Any “yes” – then Rescue Standby (RS)
16ReferencesConfined Space and Structural Rope Rescue, Michael Roop, Thomas Vines, and Richard Wright, Published by Mosby, Inc., 1998.Confined Space: Entry and Rescue – A Training Manual, Published by CMC Rescue, Inc., 1996.
18Standards and Regulations NFPAConsensus standards – voluntary complianceANSIU.S. & international standardsConsensus standards – voluntary compliance.Mandatory when referenced by OSHA in regulationsASTMCurrently writing standards on Search and RescueConsensus Standards – voluntary complianceOSHANone on rope rescue
19Equipment Description and Capabilities – Ropes Used forPrimary tool in technical rescueVary in construction, material and sizeMost common in C.S.½ inch, strength 9,000 lbs.Static kernmantle (low stretch)Dynamic kernmantle (high stretch)
20Equipment Description and Capabilities – Webbing Used forTying anchorsLashing victims into a litterTying personal harnessVary in construction, material and sizeMost common in C.S.1 inch, spiral weave, tubular, nylonStrength 4,500 lbs.
21Equipment Description and Capabilities – Prusik Loop Used forTie friction knots around rescue ropeRatchetsPoint of attachmentsMost common in C.S.8 mm, nylon
22Equipment Description and Capabilities – Anchor Straps Used forQuick, strong anchors for attaching ropes and systemsMost common in C.S.1 ¾ inch, flat nylon webbingStrength 8,000 lbs.
23Equipment Description and Capabilities – Harness Used forFall protectionConfined space rescueMost common in C.S.Flat nylon webbingFull bodyPoint of attachment in the center of the back at shoulder level
24Equipment Description and Capabilities – Carabiners Used forAttach equipment together in rescue systemsVary in construction, shape, material and sizeMost common in C.S.LargeLocking
25Equipment Description – Figure Eight Descender Used forRappellingLoweringBelay systems
26Equipment Description and Capabilities – Brake Bar Rack Used forControl a rescue loadAdd or subtract friction(Maximum Strength)(Minimum Strength)
27Equipment Description and Capabilities – Edge Protection Used forProtects rope and anchorsIncreases efficiency on rope hauling systems
28Equipment Description and Capabilities – Pulleys Used forChange the direction of moving ropesBuild mechanical advantage into rope hauling systems
29Equipment Description and Capabilities – Pulleys First Class LeverR (resistance)F (fulcrum)E (effort)Fixed PulleySecond Class LeverMoving Pulley
30Equipment Description and Capabilities – Tripod Used forAccess to vertical entryMost common in C.S.9-foot height or greater
31Equipment Description and Capabilities – Winch Used forAssist with tripodsMost common in C.S.Retractable designated for non-entry rescueCertified as a primary lowering device
32Equipment Description – Full Body Splint / Sked Stretcher Used forConfined Space RescueProtection for victimMost common in C.S.Together supply most support
33Static System Safety Factor (SSSF) Ratio between minimum breaking strength of a piece of equipment and the greatest force it is expected to experience during a rescue.StandardNo standard mandating what the SSSF should be.Mountain rescue teams use 4:1Rescue organizations use 10:1Fire service teams use 15:1(NFPA Standard 1983 specified the strength of a life support line to be 15 times the load.)
34KnotsKnot efficiencyKnots rated for strength by the percentage of rope strength that remain when a knot is tied in the rope.Knots should always be tied off.
35(Step 1) (Step 3) (Step 2) Knot – Figure Eight Used to tie other knots Used as a stopper knot(Step 3)(Step 2)(Step 1)
36Knot – Figure Eight Bend Used to join two load-bearing ropesKnot efficiency = 81%(Step 1)(Step 2)(Step 3)
37Knot - Figure Eight on a Bight Used to make a loop in a ropeKnot efficiency = 80%(Step 3)(Step 1)(Step 2)
38(Step 5) (Step 3) (Step 4) (Step 2) (Step 1) Knots – Water Knot Used to tie webbing togetherKnot efficiency = 64%(Step 5)(Step 3)(Step 4)(Step 2)(Step 1)
39Knots – Double Fisherman (a.k.a.) double overhand bendUsed to tie prusik loopsKnot efficiency = 79%FrontBack(Step 5)(Step 4)(Step 3)(Step 2)(Step 1)
41Anchors Foundations that all rope systems are built on Experience and Judgment
42Backed Up Anchor Anchor with another anchor of equal strength Load increases as the interior angle increases
43Load Distributing Anchors (Self Equalizing) Allows the load to be distributed to each anchor point by permitting the point of attachment to shift within the anchorSolves the problem caused by a load shiftProblem:One anchor point fails, the shift to the remaining anchor points will cause a drop in the systemSolution:Keep the anchor legs as short as possible
44Rescue Systems Starts with an anchor Next, hardware and rope to complete the systemBe prepared to modify the system during the rescue
45Rescue Systems – Simple Pulley Systems All moving pulleys moving at the same speed as the load
46Rescue Systems – Compound Pulley Systems Pulley systems pulling on other pulley systems
47Rescue Systems – Complex Pulley Systems Moving Pulleys that move at different speeds
48Rescue Systems – Belay Systems Backup systems for primary rope systems.OSHA mandates fall protection.
49For assistance/more information: Contact:Michael Lafreniere Ohio University-Chillicothe Environmental Training and Research Center 101 University Drive Chillicothe, OH Phone: (740)Web: