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Confined Rescue – A Timeline to Rescue

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Presentation on theme: "Confined Rescue – A Timeline to Rescue"— Presentation transcript:

1 Confined Rescue – A Timeline to Rescue
and Rescue Systems By Michael Lafreniere Ohio University-Chillicothe Environmental Training and Research Center (ETRC)

2 Defining Response Time
Reaction Time Contact Time Response Time Assessment Time Preparation Time Rescue Time

3 Reaction Time Time between the entrant having a problem requiring rescue and the safety attendant’s recognition that the entrant has problem

4 Contact Time The time taken by the attendant to contact the rescue team.

5 Response Time The time taken by the rescuers to arrive at the scene of the rescue after contact.

6 Assessment Time The time taken by a rescue team to size up the problem and determine the strategy to perform a safe, efficient rescue

7 Preparation Time The time take by a rescue team to set up for the rescue.

8 Rescue Time The time taken for the team to reach, treat, package, and evacuate the victim from the confined space.

9 Untimely Rescue Response
CPR Emergency – Goal: 4 minutes OSHA Preamble Golden Hour Patient delivery within an hour of the injury Example Falls off a ladder Broken Bones

10 Rescue Response Time Goals
On-Site Team Almost impossible to respond to a rescue summons and reach a victim within OSHA’s goal of 4 minutes Unless using Rescue-Standby (team is already set up) Appropriate Goal Initiate patient transport to the hospital within minutes of the incident

11 Rescue Response Time Goal
0 – 3 minutes Permit-Required Confined Space incident occurs and rescue team is called 3 – 13 minutes (10 min. duration) Rescue Team Arrives at the Scene 13 – 23 minutes (10 min. duration) Rescue Team Sizes up and Prepares to initiate rescue 23 – 38 minutes (15 min. duration) Rescue team reaches and rescues patient. 38 – 53 minutes (15 min. duration) Patient is transported and arrives at emergency room

12 Rescue Response Decision-Making Criteria
Rescue Standby (RS) Requires team to be present and able to enter the space immediately and reach the patient in 2 to 4 minutes Rescue Available (RA) Requires the team to be able to respond to the entry site in about 10 minutes and reach the patient approximately 5 minutes later. Can Catergorize PRCS – PrePlan Best to assign on an entry by entry basis

13 Rescue Response Categories
Rescue Available Do not require entrants to wear fresh air breathing equipment Do not expose the entrant to any obvious IDLH or potential IDLH hazard Do not warrant rescue personnel standing by during the entry, and Do not require the entrant to have assistance to exit the space, under normal circumstances

14 Rescue Response Categories
Space in which entrants are required to use fresh air breathing equipment Spaces in which an obvious IDLH hazard exists or potentially exists, and/or Spaces from which an entrant would be expected to have difficulty exiting without help

15 Determining Rescue Response
Entry Supervisor must decide for each entry Three questions should be asked Is the hazard or potential hazard immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH)? Is breathing air required for entry? Would the entrant have difficulty exiting the space unassisted? Any “yes” – then Rescue Standby (RS)

16 References Confined Space and Structural Rope Rescue, Michael Roop, Thomas Vines, and Richard Wright, Published by Mosby, Inc., 1998. Confined Space: Entry and Rescue – A Training Manual, Published by CMC Rescue, Inc., 1996.

17 Rescue Systems and Equipment

18 Standards and Regulations
NFPA Consensus standards – voluntary compliance ANSI U.S. & international standards Consensus standards – voluntary compliance. Mandatory when referenced by OSHA in regulations ASTM Currently writing standards on Search and Rescue Consensus Standards – voluntary compliance OSHA None on rope rescue

19 Equipment Description and Capabilities – Ropes
Used for Primary tool in technical rescue Vary in construction, material and size Most common in C.S. ½ inch, strength 9,000 lbs. Static kernmantle (low stretch) Dynamic kernmantle (high stretch)

20 Equipment Description and Capabilities – Webbing
Used for Tying anchors Lashing victims into a litter Tying personal harness Vary in construction, material and size Most common in C.S. 1 inch, spiral weave, tubular, nylon Strength 4,500 lbs.

21 Equipment Description and Capabilities – Prusik Loop
Used for Tie friction knots around rescue rope Ratchets Point of attachments Most common in C.S. 8 mm, nylon

22 Equipment Description and Capabilities – Anchor Straps
Used for Quick, strong anchors for attaching ropes and systems Most common in C.S. 1 ¾ inch, flat nylon webbing Strength 8,000 lbs.

23 Equipment Description and Capabilities – Harness
Used for Fall protection Confined space rescue Most common in C.S. Flat nylon webbing Full body Point of attachment in the center of the back at shoulder level

24 Equipment Description and Capabilities – Carabiners
Used for Attach equipment together in rescue systems Vary in construction, shape, material and size Most common in C.S. Large Locking

25 Equipment Description – Figure Eight Descender
Used for Rappelling Lowering Belay systems

26 Equipment Description and Capabilities – Brake Bar Rack
Used for Control a rescue load Add or subtract friction (Maximum Strength) (Minimum Strength)

27 Equipment Description and Capabilities – Edge Protection
Used for Protects rope and anchors Increases efficiency on rope hauling systems

28 Equipment Description and Capabilities – Pulleys
Used for Change the direction of moving ropes Build mechanical advantage into rope hauling systems

29 Equipment Description and Capabilities – Pulleys
First Class Lever R (resistance) F (fulcrum) E (effort) Fixed Pulley Second Class Lever Moving Pulley

30 Equipment Description and Capabilities – Tripod
Used for Access to vertical entry Most common in C.S. 9-foot height or greater

31 Equipment Description and Capabilities – Winch
Used for Assist with tripods Most common in C.S. Retractable designated for non-entry rescue Certified as a primary lowering device

32 Equipment Description – Full Body Splint / Sked Stretcher
Used for Confined Space Rescue Protection for victim Most common in C.S. Together supply most support

33 Static System Safety Factor (SSSF)
Ratio between minimum breaking strength of a piece of equipment and the greatest force it is expected to experience during a rescue. Standard No standard mandating what the SSSF should be. Mountain rescue teams use 4:1 Rescue organizations use 10:1 Fire service teams use 15:1 (NFPA Standard 1983 specified the strength of a life support line to be 15 times the load.)

34 Knots Knot efficiency Knots rated for strength by the percentage of rope strength that remain when a knot is tied in the rope. Knots should always be tied off.

35 (Step 1) (Step 3) (Step 2) Knot – Figure Eight Used to tie other knots
Used as a stopper knot (Step 3) (Step 2) (Step 1)

36 Knot – Figure Eight Bend
Used to join two load-bearing ropes Knot efficiency = 81% (Step 1) (Step 2) (Step 3)

37 Knot - Figure Eight on a Bight
Used to make a loop in a rope Knot efficiency = 80% (Step 3) (Step 1) (Step 2)

38 (Step 5) (Step 3) (Step 4) (Step 2) (Step 1) Knots – Water Knot
Used to tie webbing together Knot efficiency = 64% (Step 5) (Step 3) (Step 4) (Step 2) (Step 1)

39 Knots – Double Fisherman
(a.k.a.) double overhand bend Used to tie prusik loops Knot efficiency = 79% Front Back (Step 5) (Step 4) (Step 3) (Step 2) (Step 1)

40 (Step 2) (Step 1) (Step 4) (Step 3) (Step 5) Knot – Prusik Loop
Friction Knot (Step 2) (Step 1) (Step 4) (Step 3) (Step 5)

41 Anchors Foundations that all rope systems are built on
Experience and Judgment

42 Backed Up Anchor Anchor with another anchor of equal strength
Load increases as the interior angle increases

43 Load Distributing Anchors (Self Equalizing)
Allows the load to be distributed to each anchor point by permitting the point of attachment to shift within the anchor Solves the problem caused by a load shift Problem: One anchor point fails, the shift to the remaining anchor points will cause a drop in the system Solution: Keep the anchor legs as short as possible

44 Rescue Systems Starts with an anchor
Next, hardware and rope to complete the system Be prepared to modify the system during the rescue

45 Rescue Systems – Simple Pulley Systems
All moving pulleys moving at the same speed as the load

46 Rescue Systems – Compound Pulley Systems
Pulley systems pulling on other pulley systems

47 Rescue Systems – Complex Pulley Systems
Moving Pulleys that move at different speeds

48 Rescue Systems – Belay Systems
Backup systems for primary rope systems. OSHA mandates fall protection.

49 For assistance/more information:
Contact: Michael Lafreniere Ohio University-Chillicothe Environmental Training and Research Center 101 University Drive Chillicothe, OH Phone: (740) Web:

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