Presentation on theme: "11 Great Man Traits Behavioural/Skills Contingency Path-Goal Situational Charismatic Transformational Emotional Intelligence A Short History of Leadership."— Presentation transcript:
11 Great Man Traits Behavioural/Skills Contingency Path-Goal Situational Charismatic Transformational Emotional Intelligence A Short History of Leadership ContextFollowerLeader
22 Studies of Leadership Traits and Characteristics Stogdill (1948) Mann (1959) Stogdill (1974) Lord, DeVader and Alliger (1986) Kirkpatrick and Locke (1991) Intelligence Alertness Insight Responsibility Initiative Persistence Self-confidence Sociability Intelligence Masculinity Adjustment Dominance Extroversion Conservatism Achievement Persistence Insight Initiative Self-confidence Responsibility Cooperativeness Tolerance Influence Sociability Intelligence Masculinity Dominance Drive Motivation Integrity Confidence Cognitive ability Task knowledge Cited in Northouse, Peter, G. (2007) Leadership: Theory and Practice 4 th Ed. London, Sage
33 cited in Northouse, Peter, G. (2007) Leadership: Theory and Practice 4 th Ed. London, Sage Big Five Personality Factors Neuroticism The tendency to be depressed, anxious, insecure, vulnerable and hostile Extraversion The tendency to be sociable and assertive and to have positive energy Openness The tendency to be informed, creative, insightful and curious Agreeableness The tendency to be accepting, conforming, trusting and nurturing Conscientiousness The tendency to be thorough, organised, controlled, dependable and decisive +++ - ++ +
44 Intelligence Self-confidence Determination Integrity Sociability Major Leadership Traits Northouse, Peter, G. (2007) Leadership: Theory and Practice 4 th Ed. London, Sage
55 Theory/ModelAuthorFeatures Traits Linked to personal qualities and characteristics. Rooted in psychological assessments of personality e.g. Big Five and Myers-Briggs Behavioural Contingency Stogdill, R.M. (1948, 1974) Blake & Mouton (1964) Fielder, F.E. (1967) Vroom & Yetton (1973) Tannenbaum and Schmidt (1973) Introduced the (people-production) Management Grid. Focus on leader-member relations and task or people oriented leaders. Task orientation suits when situation high or low ‘favourability’ and people orientation when moderate. Focus on leader. Underplays people dimension. Path Goal Evans (1970) House & Dressler (1974) Path-Goal is grounded in expectancy theory (effort/performance/outcome) and importance of context and culture. Not adequately empirically validated. Situational Hersey & Blanchard (1982) Blanchard, K. (2004) Leaders should act as the situation (task or relationship centred) demands. Situational Leadership (task, relationship plus maturity of followers) promotes use of leadership styles. Intuitive and pragmatic. Not empirically validated. Charismatic Transformational Visionary House, R. (1977) Bass, B. (1985) Kouzes & Posner (1987) Bennis (2003) Leaders use vision and influence and persuade followers to subordinate individual wants to the needs of the collective. There is an importance attached to context and increasingly this is seen as being chaotic and by necessity, to be exploited rather than controlled. Emotional Intelligence Goleman (1999) Caruso & Salovey (2004) Goleman, Boyatzis & Mckee (2004) Focused on the leader-follower relationship. Need for leader self- awareness, self-control and empathy.