Studies of Leadership Nature: Until the late 40s the belief was that leaders were born not made and had particular traits: intelligence, extraversion, etc. Nurture: From the late 40s until the late 60s the central belief was that it was how leaders behave that mattered. It was a question of style. As such it could be learnt.
Studies of leadership Situational Factors: From the late 60s until the early 80s the idea was that leadership depended on the situation in which leaders found themselves. Some would be good for some circumstances but not for others. Visionary Leadership: Since the early 80s the central idea is that leaders need vision and charisma and that leading and managing are different.
The nature argument Trait Leadership Effectiveness And Success
The Nurture Argument Trait Leadership Effectiveness And Success Abilities & Behaviors
The Situational Argument Trait Leadership Effectiveness And Success Abilities & Behaviors Situation
Stogdill - continued Status Socioeconomic position Popularity Situation Task to be accomplished Followers to be led
JOHARI’s Window Construct of Joe Luft and Harry Ingham Relates self-perception to the perception of others Things we know about ourselves Things others know about us
The Johari Window The Arena Unknown Blind Private Known to Self Unknown to Self Known to Others Unknown to Others
The trait perspective Major traits in leaders are: intelligence, dominance, self-confidence, high energy level, and task relevant knowledge (Stodgill 1970). Traits are best thought of as predispositions not causes Multiple traits can be associated with a given behavior, and more than one behavior can be linked to an individual trait It is behavior and not traits per se that is most closely related to leadership effectiveness
Dr. Shahram Yazdani21 Path-Goal Model Evans - 1970 & House & Dressler -1974 EffortPerformanceRewardMotivation InstrumentalityExpectancyValence Subordinate Perceptions Work Environment Characteristics Subordinate Characteristics Leader Behavior (style)
Path Goal Model Expectancy is the relation between effort and performance Instrumentality is the degree to which a person perceives that performance will lead to reward Valence is the strength of a person’s preference for different types of reward
Path Goal Model According to expectancy theory a person will be highly motivated when effort results in performance (high expectancy) and when performance leads to rewards (high instrumentality) that are valued (high valence)
Implications of Path Goal Model The path between effort, performance, and reward is difficult. The leader must do everything possible to turn what is often a cow path into a well designed, high-speed freeway Individuals’ valences are heterogenous
Implications of Path Goal Model The contingency most under a manager’s control is his own leadership style: Instrumental behavior (defining objectives and specifying the task to be performed) Participatory behavior (seeking follower input on decisions that affect them Achievement-oriented behavior (establishing goals and setting expectations that challenge followers)
Factors affecting effectiveness of leadership Characteristics of the manager: Traits / dispositions Skills Values Characteristics of followers: Skills Knowledge Experience Responsibility Understanding of goals and tasks Characteristics of situation: Time availability Nature of problem