Managers are people who do things right. Leaders are people who do the right things
LEAD LISTENING ENTHUSIASME ARGUMENTING DIRECTING
Why do we need leaders? Incomplete organisational structure External change Internal change Motivate, inspire and influence
Leadership roles Policy issues, strategic decision making & structural change [Origination = top managers on system level] Interpret strategic decisions and design method of implementation [Interpolation = intermediate-level managers on subsystem level] Implement policies and procedures efficiently [Administration = lower-level managers with know-how]
Early theories of leadership: Traits theories or Great-Man theories Trait theories are about "Who is a leader? The theories identify certain personality types and concern well-known personalities who possess distinguished innate characteristic, or just were at the right place at the right time. Examples: Ghandi, Churchill etc.
The Great Man Theory Traits: Physical traits, intelligence, personality traits Stogdill (1948): revised 124 studies of leadership & found only 3 attributes for most leaders: –Height –Intelligence –Initiative
Who is your leader? Lord et al (1984) found that group ascribed to leaders 3 attributes: –Intelligence –Dominance –Masculinity
Changes between 1948 and 1984 McCare, Robert R. (2000): Trait Pychology and the Revival of Personality and Culture Studies What are these changes based on? PEAK
Factor analysis of the 9 dimensions gave 2 large factors Consideration –Helping subordinates –Doing favours –Explaining Initiating Structure –Getting subordinates to follow rules –Setting performance standards –Making roles explicit
Behavioural theories [styles]: What the leader does rather than who the leader is The way someone performs the task: Charismatic Theory Authoritarian Democratic Laissez-Faire Task vs Relationship (Blake & Mouton)
Autoritarian styles Strong control Dominance Orders to be followed Directions are commands Criticism is common
Democratic style Participative and less controlling Control is shared by the group Stimulation and quidance instead of commands Group responsiblity for the outcomes is based on: –Active participation –Responsibility for oneself and for the welfare of the group –Concern and consideration for each group member
Laissez-Faire inactive, passive, nondirectional Lack of limits Control is left to the group Independent non-co-ordinated activities –Highly self-directed, motivated and selv- organised groups could here become highly creative and productive
Task vs. relationship [Blake & Mouton] Task oriented leader: –Get the work done and encourage group productivity. Relationship oriented Leader –Secure interpersonal relationships through activities that meet the needs of group members The task and relationship orientations are bipolar. The leader can be high in one scale and low on another. It is also possible to balance between task and relation.