4To get us started... David (of David and Goliath) JK Rowling Consider these characters who have persisted in the face of challenge:David (of David and Goliath)JK RowlingEllie Simmonds (Paralympic swimmer)Sam and Frodo (from Lord of the Rings)Boxer Muhammad Ali/Cassius ClayYour own experienceIdentify:What spurred you/them on to rise to the challenge?What made you/them believe they could succeed?What might have prevented you/them from persisting?Learning objectives:Participants will have surfaced their expectations of the issues regarding challenge and persistence and the participants own underlying mindsetFacilitator activity: Check characters are known ( can be edited depending on audience). In the feedback section highlight that mistakes are valuable in learning process and the resilience and persistence are key characteristics to achieving objectives.Participant activity: in pairs consider the characters who have risen to a challenge:David ( of David and Goliath)Sam and Frodo in Mordor (Lord of the Rings)Ellie Simmonds (Paralympic swimmer)J K RowlingCassius Clay/Muhammad AliYour own choiceIdentify:What spurred them on to rise to the challenge?What made them believe they could succeed?What might have prevented them from persisting?Feedback: whole table / whole group depending on size/time
5Evidence from Carol Dweck: How do mindsets affect learning? What is a mindset?Mindsets are the collective term used by the researcherCarol Dweck to describe the different ways in whichpeople, of all ages, view their personal ability, talentand intelligence.Learning Objectives: Participants will develop more awareness of/ or build on current awareness of evidence base around Dwecks Growth Mindsets work drawing out significance of their own mindsets and beliefs as well as those of students:Facilitator activity: Offer slides and reinforce / extend issues. For more background on Dwecks growth mindsets see and links on that page.Dweck’s research helps us understand:the relationship between learners’ beliefs about their own mental abilities and their behaviour when challengedwhether these mindsets can be changed (and what changing these beliefs means for learning), andwhether experiences of success increase learners' desires for challenge and improve their "resilience" in the face of setbacks.
6Influences on academic progress? In pairs discuss:What you think determines your child’s success at school?What holds your child’s back?What / who can support them?Hopefully by the end of this presentation you might have some new ideas and strategies.
7What are the different ways pupils view their own learning? Dweck‘s research identifies two distinct types of mindsetthat pupils form about themselves and their intelligenceand cognitive abilities:the fixed mindset - pupils believe that they have a pre-determined amount of intelligence and capacity for cognitive achievement which can’t be altered.
8the growth mindset, in which pupils believe that their abilities and capacity can be developed by dedication and persistence and so are optimistic and resilient.Mindset and happiness:
9Questions about intelligence Read each statement and decide if you mostly agree or disagree with it. A/DYour intelligence is something very basic about you that you can’t change very muchYou can learn new things, but you can’t really change how intelligent you areNo matter how much intelligence you have, you can always change it quite a bitYou can always substantially change how intelligent you are
10Personality & character Look at the statements below and decide whether you mostly agree or disagree with each one. A/DYou are a certain kind of person and there is not much that can be done to really change thatNo matter what kind of person you are, you can always change substantiallyYou can do things differently, but the important parts of who you are can’t really be changedYou can always change the basic things about the kind of person you are
12Mindset Trait 1: How you want to appear to others? Fixed Mindset: LOOK CLEVER AT ALL COSTSGrowth Mindset:LEARN AT ALL COSTSImpacts of social media / TV?
13Mindset Trait 1: How you want to appear to others FIXED MINDSET:Respond poorly to feedback from othersJealous of the success of othersSeek to put people downGROWTH MINDSET:Learn from criticism and suggestionsSeek strategies to improveFixed Mindset students want to look clever at all costs, to NEVER LOOK STUPID. This can lead to disengagement and disruption: they choose to disrupt rather than admit they cannot do or access something.Growth Mindset students want to LEARN at all costs- this matters more to them then getting the best grades or scores and results in deeper studying, learning, understanding and consequently outcomes. For example in a study by Dweck et al. in 2007 they found students identified as having a Growth Mindset averaged 4% higher (72.5% compared to 76.5% average score) in attainment of year olds students (of comparable starting abilities) in Maths. Comparable results- i.e. improved outcomes- were found when comparing the mindsets and attainments of pre-med students in organic chemistry.The ability of the GM students to recover from setbacks was also noted.
14QuestionsDo we recognisedany of the fixed mindset traits in our child(ren)?What strategies do we use to support our children to embrace criticismAs parents have we been provided with strategies to help our children improve. Work harder is not a strategy, neither is hope!
15Mindset Trait 2 : Responding to setbacks Fixed Mindset: It’s about me HIDE MISTAKES & DEFICIENCIES BSE / BMW (SUMO)Growth Mindset: It’s about learningCONFRONT MISTAKES & DEFICIENCIESDo we recognise any of these? Dads and DIY / map reading?
16Mindset Trait 2 : Responding to setbacks FIXED MINDSET:Avoids trying something newFinds it extremely hard to cope with setbacksSeeks to blame others for their setbacksGROWTH MINDSET:Setbacks highlight issues/problems that need to be dealt with and learnt fromActively seek out learning opportunitiesIn a study in 2007, Dweck compared the different responses of fixed vs growth mindset students after a setback- not doing so well on an assessment:Fixed Mindset its about ME. It provides no recipe for handling difficulty•Give up, retreat to comfort zone• Become defensive•Try to feel superior in other ways(WOULD SOME OF THESE BE MORE APPROPRIATE TO GO ON THE FM SLIDE?)Growth Mindset, its all about the LEARNING. They confront the mistakes and deficiencies- you can change to GM, you can teach it!FixedGrowth“I’d spend less time on this subject from now on.”“I would work harder in this class from now on.”“I would try to cheat on the next test.”“I would spend more time studying for the tests.”
17Mindset Trait 3: Talent vs Effort Fixed Mindset: IT SHOULD COME NATURALLYGrowth Mindset:WORK HARD, EFFORT IS KEY
18Mindset Trait 3: Talent vs Effort FIXEDMINDSET:Intelligent people are born that waySee further effort as undermining their geniusTalent and intelligence is everythingGROWTH MINDSET:Understands that no matter what your natural aptitude, effort is essential to improve and achievePersistently committed and motivatedFM: It should come naturally. GM: effort, working hard, are key.Anders Ericsson pioneered the term “deliberate practise”- not just doing the same thing again and again, but systematically addressing weaknesses. Relishing stretch and challenge. Dweck: “Easy is a waste of time.”FM students have never learned how to work hard.
19PotentialPotential - Someone’s capacity to develop their skills with effort over time. Benjamin Barber, eminent sociologist: “I don’t divide the world into the weak and the strong, or the successes and the failures …… I divide the world into the learners and nonlearners.”
20FailureAs a New York Times article points out, failure has been transformed from an action (I failed) to an identity (I am a failure).This is especially true in the fixed mindset.Failure is not see as positive whilst is should be seen as a learning opportunity.
21Fixed mindsetRisk and effort are two things that might reveal your inadequacies and show that you were not up to the task.In fact, it’s startling to see the degree to which pupils with a fixed mindset do not believe in effort.
22Mistakes & MindsetA crucial aspect of having a growth mindset is not being afraid to make mistakes.Mistakes are a fact of life and if we gave up after every one, we’d never get anywhere.Mistakes are part of the learning process and help us to perform better next time.Examples:Taking a wrong turnLearning a new languageLearning to driveHandwriting/spellingNike Mistakes VideoWhat does this mean for us? Nobody likes making mistakes. But, unless you want to go through life as a complete recluse, you are guaranteed to make one every now and them. If you learn from mistakes correctly, they can propell will you forward.You must also realise that mistakes are an essential part of self improvement. Don’t be overwhelmed with guilt and regret, analyze how you can learn from them.From your own mistakes you can gain wisdom and accelerate self-improvement. Mistakes, because of their relationship with risk taking, are essential to success. The important thing is to view mistakes as a useful stepping stone to a higher reality and better outlook on life.
23– Colin Powell (US Secretary of State 2001-2005) “There are no secrets to success. It is the result of preparation, hard work and learning from failure”– Colin Powell (US Secretary of State )The three great essentials to achieve anything worthwhile are: Hard work, Stick-to-itiveness, and Common sense”– Thomas A. Edison (Inventor)When I was young, I observed that nine out of ten things I did were failures. So I did ten times more work”– George Bernard Shaw (Playwright)This goes against some of the views that we all have about talent etc“Nothing can substitute for just plain hard work. I had to put in the time to get back. And it was a grind. It meant training and sweating everyday. But I was completely committed to working out to prove to myself that I still could do it”– Andre Agassi (Tennis Player)
25Resilience + Hard work + Belief that intelligence can grow = a growth mindsetHow do we model this as parents?What do our children see / hear?
26Why do mindsets matter?Consider Rowan and Naz, two classmates of similar achievement levels, and socio-economic background. They have been given the same task. It’s well-pitched, high-challenge, designed to stretch them.
27Rowan sets to with gusto Rowan sets to with gusto. He’s good at this sort of task and values his reputation as someone who gets things right, fast. He finds the task unusually tough and quickly becomes dispirited, worrying that he’s coming across as ‘slow’. He tells his classmates the task’s ‘boring’ and he disengages from it.
28Naz sets to with gusto. He finds the task tough and his intellectual arousal is heightened. His initial attempts lead nowhere and he laughs when he realises he’s going down a blind alley. He tries a new strategy and engages classmates in a task-focused discussion. He shows curiosity and tenacity and steadily makes progress.
29From a comparable baseline, Naz’s growth mindset will trump Rowan’s fixed mindset, and these effects will become increasingly marked over time.Mindsets matter.
30Prove my learning (show I’m bright) Intelligence is fixed (eg Rowan)Intelligence is growable (eg Naz)PrioritySeeks out … Avoids ...When things get tough…Prove my learning (show I’m bright)Quick wins, easy successes, less able competitors, as these all show that I’m intellectually well-endowed.Tough challenges, effort, difficulty, higher-performing peers.I become flaky, flustered and flounder, or simply walk away from the task, doubting my capacity to accomplish it. Or maybe I’ll cheat.Improve my learning (become brighter).Challenges, smart friends and other opportunities to learn and improve, as these all assist my development.Tasks and situations that I’ve already mastered – no new learning there then.I try harder or revise my strategy. Ishow resilience, creativity and grit – and thereby become a better learner.
31Where do Rowan’s and Naz’s different mindsets come from Where do Rowan’s and Naz’s different mindsets come from? Three candidates:Fixed mindsetGrowth mindset1. Praise and other rewardsRowan has always been praised for getting things right, and quickly – ‘Clever boy!’ He now does things in measured proportion to the praise he receives.Naz hasn’t had much praise from his parents, but they do notice and comment on his hard work and show interest in his activities – ‘So why did you choose this colour?’ They give helpful feedback.
32Fixed mindsetGrowth mindset2. Over-valuing ‘self-esteem’Rowan’s parents are effusive about his every action. Why not? To be critical (or even neutral) would crush his fragile ‘self-esteem’Naz’s parents don’t see it as their job to donate self-esteem. Instead they help him to see problems as intrinsically interesting, and to value effort not easy success.
33Fixed mindsetGrowth mindset3. The ‘hidden curriculum’Rowan notices how interested his parents are in his performance relative to his peers’. Labels like ‘clever’, ‘stupid’, ‘quick’, ‘slow’ are used to describe people.Naz notices how his parents value the effort and dedication that go into people’s achievements, and how seldom people are described in terms of their ‘natural abilities’.
34Challenge and mindsetBut how does the concept of challenge relate to children’s mindset specifically?We’ve already seen from Rowan’s aversion to a high-challenge task and Naz’s embrace of it, that challenges are viewed differently by different people.
35For those with fixed mindsets, challenges carry with them the prospect of ‘failure’ and the consequent ‘exposure’ of a limited intelligence.For those with a growth mindset, challenges are ideal learning opportunities – a chance to extend their knowledge and skills beyond their current levels.When children learn that sticking at tough, challenging tasks leads to changes to their brains that make them smarter, we have a way of disrupting fixed mindsets and reinforcing growth mindsets.
36Unpacking the evidence In pairs identify where at home:a growth mindset is helping to fuel successa fixed mindset might be inhibiting successLearning objectives:Participants use the evidence to make sense of their own experiences / contexts.Facilitator activity: Listen in to discussions, feedback after discussion either whole table/ group – elicit useful examples.Participant activity: In pairs or small groups consider aspects of teaching and learning for staff and students where:a growth mindset is helping to fuel successa fixed mindset might be inhibiting success (10 min)
37What can we do as parents? Dweck’s work identifies some key strategies that parents and teachers can use to promote growth mindsets:Modelling a growth mindset themselvesModelling and encouraging positive self talkExplicitly encouraging and developing resilient attitudes amongst our childrenUsing praise to separate task performance from self worthDeveloping childrens’ skills in their conscious use of problem solving strategies to increase confidence and persistenceLast three are more tangible and relate to the tasters provided which will build on this
39Parent message You have permanent traits and I’m judging them - fixed ORYou are a developing person and I’m interested in your development - growth
40Parent - messages about success You learned that so quickly! You’re so clever!Look at that drawing. Martha, is he the next Picasso or what?You’re so brilliant, you got an A without even studying!These are familiar supportive, esteem-boosting messages
41Feedback Do these sound familiar? Have you used them? Are they fixed or growth mindset?
42What might a child hear?If I don’t learn something quickly, I’m not cleverI shouldn’t try drawing anything hard or they’ll see I’m no PicassoI’d better quit studying or they won’t think I’m brilliant
43Dweck’s ResearchPraising children’s intelligence harms their motivation and it harms their performanceChildren love to be praised for their intelligence and talent. It gives them a boost but only for the moment.When they hit a snag, their confidence goes and the motivation falls. If success means they’re clever, then failure means they’re stupid = a fixed mindset
44Dweck’s advice to parents Teach their children to love challenges, be intrigued by mistakes, enjoy effort, and keep on learning.Children then don’t have to be slaves of praiseThey will have a life-long way to build and repair their own confidence
45Over to youMy son of eight is doing badly at school. I know he’s clever, but he just can’t be bothered. He’s so lazy….. His teachers are getting fed up too… He can do the work, it’s just that he won’t. is there anything we can do? – written to a national newspaper
46Can you suggest problems with this part of the response? Tell your son that he’s clever…..look at his homework with him and praise him to the skies when he gets the right answers. Take his side against the ‘idiot teachers’ who are scolding him…..Find out if it might not be a good idea if he’s m oved from his class – either up or down…..Sometimes, particularly with people who are basically bright, confidence can make them brighter.How would you respond?
47Mindset responseLeave off this ‘clever’ stuff! Whatever you do, don’t say things like, ‘You should find it easy – you’re a bright boy!’ Look at his homework with him, and show interest in it. Express delight when you find things puzzling and challenge: ‘Wow – this is tough – we should learn something useful here!’ When the task is easy, express mild disappointment and find ways to make things more interesting.
48Talk to his teachers and see if they can personalise the work sometimes. If he can do the work already, could they relate the homework to a real-life project or problem, and/or get him to do it jointly with a good friend? Go easy on the praise, stickers and rewards, but don’t stint on the feedback or interest in his activity. Look to change of class or school only as a last resort.
49Unpacking the evidence You are in a growth mindset home; what does it look like feel like… sound like…?
50No Praise?Not at all. But avoid praise that judges their intelligence or talent. Or praise that implies that we are proud of them for their intelligence or talent rather than for the work they put in.Praise for the growth-orientated process – what they accomplish through practice, study, persistence and good strategies.
51What is the message? Wow you did that so quickly! Look, you didn’t make any mistakes
52QuestionWhat might our children be hearing from this?
53We are telling them that what we prize are speed and perfectionism. Child’s response?If you think I’m smart when I’m fast and perfect, I’d better not take on anything challenging
55What should we say? Whoops, I guess that was too easy Let’s do something you can really learn from!Help them learn ways of doing things better next timeDevelop new or better skillsEncouraging think and learningFoster their interests, growth and learning
56Praise should deal not with personality attributes but with efforts and achievements We can praise them as we want for the growth-orientated process – what they accomplish through practice, study, persistence and good strategiesAsk them about their work in a way that admires and appreciates their efforts and choices
57A Task For YouReflect on a personal goal or ambition you’ve achieved in your lives to date, and capture the ‘how’ of your achievement in a single word or phrase.
58And the research results.. EffortCoping with obstaclesThinking about times I’ve achieved difficult things beforeProving others wrongSupport from othersPracticeAdviceConstructive feedbackPerseverancePlanningBounce-back-abilityModifying my goalsDeterminationPersistenceInterest in itBreaking it down into small stepsRisk-takingMaking a strategyImagining myself doing itHaving a visionHaving a goEncouragementWorking to repay others’ faith in meSacrificeEnjoying the processSelf-beliefSelf-disciplinepatiencePositive self-talkTrying a different approach
59Show your child thishttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H14bBuluwB8