Presentation on theme: "What are growth mindsets and how can they be promoted? Centre for the Use of Research and Evidence in Education (CUREE)"— Presentation transcript:
What are growth mindsets and how can they be promoted? Centre for the Use of Research and Evidence in Education (CUREE)
This PowerPoint presentation highlights: Dweck’s research about: the nature and impact of two types of mindsets (growth and fixed) strategies to promote a growth mindset (where learners persist even in the face of challenge) The role of teacher beliefs in developing pupils’ mindsets
How do mindsets affect learning? What is a mindset? Mindsets are the collective term used by the researcher Carol Dweck to describe the different ways in which people, of all ages, view their personal ability, talent and intelligence. Dweck’s research helps understand: the relationship between learners’ beliefs about their own mental abilities and their behaviour when challenged whether these mindsets can be changed (and what changing these beliefs means for learning), and whether experiences of success increase learners' desires for challenge and improve their "resilience" in the face of setbacks.
What are the different ways people view their own learning? Dweck‘s research identifies two distinct types of mindset that people form about themselves and their intelligence and cognitive abilities: the fixed mindset - people believe that they have a pre-determined amount of intelligence and capacity for cognitive achievement which can’t be altered. For them success is seen as good a mistake is seen as bad and as an indication of stupidity the growth mindset, in which people believe that their abilities and capacity can be developed by dedication and persistence and so are optimistic and resilient. For them effort is key.
How do people with different mindsets approach learning tasks? People’s mindsets influence the way that they approach difficult and challenging tasks: Learners with a growth mindset: focus on problems to be solved, not on the possibility of failure separate performance on task from self worth. They feel good even if others do better Learners with a fixed mindset: are concerned almost entirely with what their inability to solve the problem means about them feel good when outperforming others on even low level tasks and see failure as a sign of inadequacy which is painful. try to avoid being challenged
Teaching and learning approaches Dweck’s work identifies some key strategies that teachers can use to promote growth mindsets: 1.Modelling a growth mindset themselves 2.Explicitly developing resilient attitudes amongst learners 3.Using praise to separate task performance from self worth 4.Developing learner skills in their conscious use of problem solving strategies to increase their confidence and persistence 5.Modelling and encouraging positive self talk, and 6.Promoting a shared understanding of quality during formative assessment
Exploring the strategies-1 Teachers model a growth mindset by: showing their pupils that they believe that their own abilities can be developed by dedication and persistence e.g. “I find equations hard myself but am practising so that I will improve” Teachers explicitly develop resilient attitudes amongst learners by Praising pupils when they keep trying, e.g. “well done, you’re almost there” Highlighting that mistakes are learning points, e.g. “So now you’ll remember for next time that you need to check the number of decimal places” Modelling their own resilience, for example “ I didn’t pass my driving test first time because I struggled to park. But I spent a lot of time practicing so that now I am really good at parking. 1.Explicitly developing a resilient attitudes amongst learners 2.Separating task performance from self worth Conscious use of problem solving strategies o Using common boards and sharing problems and the process of solving them Involving pupils in setting and understanding criteria o Researching mathematical behaviours and spotting them Praising effort and persistent behaviours o Appreciating mathematical behaviours and each others’ contributions to solving problems
Exploring the strategies-2 Teachers use praise to separate task performance from self worth by: focusing praise on activities undertaken, strategies used, effort and the quality of output e.g “that was an effective strategy. Can you think of another situation when you could use it?” avoiding labelling pupils on the basis of their attainment, e.g. “Kelly is a natural at spelling” Teachers develop learner skills in their conscious use of problem solving strategies to increase their confidence and persistence by : giving pupils open-ended group activities which do not necessarily have one correct answer/strategy 1.Explicitly developing a resilient attitudes amongst learners 2.Separating task performance from self worth Conscious use of problem solving strategies o Using common boards and sharing problems and the process of solving them Involving pupils in setting and understanding criteria o Researching mathematical behaviours and spotting them Praising effort and persistent behaviours o Appreciating mathematical behaviours and each others’ contributions to solving problems
Exploring the strategies-3 Teachers encourage positive self talk by: Modelling their own self talk e.g. “I sometimes get this muddled, but if I slow down I can work it out” Using praise/feedback focused on effort and strategies Teachers promote a shared understanding of quality during formative assessment by: Using peer assessment to help pupils deepen their own and others’ understanding of what ‘good’ learning processes and outcomes look like in different contexts 1.Explicitly developing a resilient attitudes amongst learners 2.Separating task performance from self worth Conscious use of problem solving strategies o Using common boards and sharing problems and the process of solving them Involving pupils in setting and understanding criteria o Researching mathematical behaviours and spotting them Praising effort and persistent behaviours o Appreciating mathematical behaviours and each others’ contributions to solving problems
How can we reap the full benefits of the 6 strategies? What makes the difference is not just the strategies but the way in which they are introduced and used. So these strategies will act as a good incubator for growth mindsets if: teachers really believe and feel confident in their own and their pupils’ growth mindset- and model how they work e.g. through sharing self talk the design of learning activities helps pupils make explicit and review their own and each other’s developing mindsets e.g. Developing and using criteria for peer review Teachers foster a supportive classroom climate so pupils feel able to make mistakes and share their learning. For example, a teacher might set up a board for a group of pupils to share their methods when solving problems and build on each other’s learning.
How can we best change our own mindset? pupils will be best supported to develop growth mindsets by teachers who themselves have growth mindsets. A follow –up study by Dweck highlighted key strategies to support change: Learn to recognise when your natural reaction to a situation is based on your fixed mindset. This helps people counteract that "voice” which suggests e.g. ‘I was never any good at...’ Develop/ rehearse self talk for a growth mindset e.g. “ This is interesting. I’ve made a mistake which means I can learn more deeply if I keep going”
How can we best change our own mindsets? - 2 Other key strategies include: Recognise that we do have a choice in how we respond to challenges, setbacks and criticism. However we might feel instinctively about something, we can consciously choose to respond to these scenarios in a positive way. Develop an array of problem solving strategies so that you can make more informed and confident choices Include persistence and hard work as a strategy in your array
How can teachers use the evidence in this study? - 1 Dweck highlighted the importance of mindsets in influencing how people respond to challenge. What do you think the mindsets of your pupils are? You might want to particularly reflect on a group of vulnerable learners. How would their mindsets vary in different subjects/ learning contexts? You can use the tasters on this line to find out more about how they view their ability.
How can teachers use the evidence in this study? - 2 Dweck found that recognising a fixed mindset can be a useful first step in countering it. Are there particular situations where you notice yourself adopting a fixed or growth mindset? You might want to explore with any patterns with a colleague. For example, are you happy to view yourself as a learner when faced with a physical challenge but more likely to adopt a fixed mindset when faced with a technological challenge?
How can leaders use the evidence in this study? Teachers own mindsets will influence how effectively they help their pupils develop growth mindsets. What do you think would be the mindsets of your staff? How would these vary in different contexts? You may want to think about the extent to which you model a growth mindset. How could this be strengthened e.g. through letting staff see how you have used mistakes as a learning point? How do pupils’ mindsets vary across your school or college ? You could use the ‘taster’ on this line to find out about existing mindsets. What are the patterns? E.g. Do pupils have more of a growth mindset in particular subjects? How do mindsets vary with age?
Follow-up reading Research for Teachers - Promoting pupils’ persistence in meeting learning challenges: http://www.tla.ac.uk/site/Pages/RfT.aspx http://www.tla.ac.uk/site/Pages/RfT.aspx Dweck, C. (2000) Self-theories: Their role in motivation, personality and development Philadelphia: Taylor and Francis Mindset interview http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ICILzbB1Obg http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ICILzbB1Obg Effects of praise http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TTXrV0_3UjY&feature=rel ated http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TTXrV0_3UjY&feature=rel ated
Contact details This presentation was produced by CUREE: CUREE Ltd 4 Copthall House Station Square Coventry CV1 2FL 02476 524036 email@example.com For further school friendly resources, please visit our website at www.curee.co.ukwww.curee.co.uk