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Productivity Strategies Making a difference to Agriculture in India.

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Presentation on theme: "Productivity Strategies Making a difference to Agriculture in India."— Presentation transcript:

1 Productivity Strategies Making a difference to Agriculture in India

2 The reasons for developing strategies The Bengal famine in 1943 in which 4 million people died of hungerThe Bengal famine in 1943 in which 4 million people died of hunger India’s population continued to grow faster than the food producedIndia’s population continued to grow faster than the food produced India’s efforts for food security till 1967 were largely on expanding the farming areasIndia’s efforts for food security till 1967 were largely on expanding the farming areas Action to increase yield came in the form of Green Revolution ( )Action to increase yield came in the form of Green Revolution ( )

3 Green Revolution The term refers to successful experiments in the agricultural sector in developing countries. It was most successful in India.The term refers to successful experiments in the agricultural sector in developing countries. It was most successful in India. Pioneered by Norman Borlaug in 1943 in Mexico.Pioneered by Norman Borlaug in 1943 in Mexico. The father of Green Revolution in India is Dr.M.S.Swaminathan. Borlaug was invited by the Indian Govt. to advise on increasing crop yields It was introduced in India with the help of US based Rockefeller FoundationThe father of Green Revolution in India is Dr.M.S.Swaminathan. Borlaug was invited by the Indian Govt. to advise on increasing crop yields It was introduced in India with the help of US based Rockefeller Foundation The aim of the programme was to ensure food security and self sufficiency in foodgrains.The aim of the programme was to ensure food security and self sufficiency in foodgrains.

4 Why was Green Revolution important? It was not just the increase in agricultural production but the change in the outlook of the politicians, policy makers, the scientists and the farmers to usher in improvement in the method of farmingIt was not just the increase in agricultural production but the change in the outlook of the politicians, policy makers, the scientists and the farmers to usher in improvement in the method of farming It helped India become self sufficient in food grains by 1974It helped India become self sufficient in food grains by 1974

5 What was Green Revolution? Comprised of three basic elements- 1.Continued expansion of farming areas- continue the post independence strategy to increase land under cultivation 2.Double cropping on existing farmland- produce two crops a year with irrigation 3.Using seeds with improved genetics- HYV seeds were developed for wheat, rice, millet and corn.K68 wheat strain by Dr M.P.Singh was most successful

6 The Beginning Punjab was selected as the first site to try the new crops because of plentiful water supply and history of agricultural successPunjab was selected as the first site to try the new crops because of plentiful water supply and history of agricultural success Imported wheat seed was used in this ventureImported wheat seed was used in this venture India also adopted IR8- a semi dwarf variety of rice developed by IRRI that could produce more grains of rice with irrigation and fertilizersIndia also adopted IR8- a semi dwarf variety of rice developed by IRRI that could produce more grains of rice with irrigation and fertilizers

7 Some indicative statistics Food grain produc tion [mT] Food grain import [mT] Buffer stock [mT] Population [m]

8 Impact of Green Revolution The High Yielding Variety (HYV) of wheat produced the best results. India produced 131 million tonnes of foodgrains in and became a grain exporterThe High Yielding Variety (HYV) of wheat produced the best results. India produced 131 million tonnes of foodgrains in and became a grain exporter Yield per unit of farmland improved by 30 percent between 1947 to 1979Yield per unit of farmland improved by 30 percent between 1947 to 1979 The crop area using HYV increased from 7 percent to 22 percent during the ten years of Green Revolution (wheat 70%, rice 35%, millet and corn 20%)The crop area using HYV increased from 7 percent to 22 percent during the ten years of Green Revolution (wheat 70%, rice 35%, millet and corn 20%) Major benefits of the Green Revolution was experienced by North and N W India between Subsequently the rate of growth was slower.Major benefits of the Green Revolution was experienced by North and N W India between Subsequently the rate of growth was slower.

9 The Positive Impact Crop yields improved dramatically and helped to feed the growing populationCrop yields improved dramatically and helped to feed the growing population Horticulture emerged as a core sector in agriculture. India emerged as the second largest producer of fruits and vegetables in the worldHorticulture emerged as a core sector in agriculture. India emerged as the second largest producer of fruits and vegetables in the world Famine could be avoided and malnutrition containedFamine could be avoided and malnutrition contained

10 The Economic Impact HYV needed more water, fertilizers and pesticides which increased the growth of manufacturing sectorHYV needed more water, fertilizers and pesticides which increased the growth of manufacturing sector India paid back its loans and improved credit worthinessIndia paid back its loans and improved credit worthiness Dams were created to harness water and the hydroelectric power spurred industrial activityDams were created to harness water and the hydroelectric power spurred industrial activity

11 Limitations of Green Revolution It has not created 100 percent self sufficiency in all foodIt has not created 100 percent self sufficiency in all food The concept of HYV could not be extended to all crops and regions. HYV remained limited to foodgrains and not all agricultural produce. Punjab and Haryana showed the best resultsThe concept of HYV could not be extended to all crops and regions. HYV remained limited to foodgrains and not all agricultural produce. Punjab and Haryana showed the best results Green Revolution cannot be considered a 100 percent successGreen Revolution cannot be considered a 100 percent success

12 Socio Economic Impact Agricultural inputs required for green revolution pushed the farmer in debt and in some cases, loss of their farmlandAgricultural inputs required for green revolution pushed the farmer in debt and in some cases, loss of their farmland The increased level of mechanization on large farms removed employment in rural areasThe increased level of mechanization on large farms removed employment in rural areas Increased class disparities as wealthier farmers had better access to land and creditIncreased class disparities as wealthier farmers had better access to land and credit The programme was implemented in areas with assured supply of water, fertilizers and farm credit. It resulted in regional and interstate disparities.The programme was implemented in areas with assured supply of water, fertilizers and farm credit. It resulted in regional and interstate disparities. Production of coarse grains and pulses, the staple of the poor, lagged behind due to production of HYVProduction of coarse grains and pulses, the staple of the poor, lagged behind due to production of HYV

13 Socio Economic impact (cont.) The Green Revolution reduced the food security of the subsistence farmer as land use changed from pulses to wheat which was not a major portion of the peasant dietThe Green Revolution reduced the food security of the subsistence farmer as land use changed from pulses to wheat which was not a major portion of the peasant diet Increased production led to fall in prices and this hurt the small farmerIncreased production led to fall in prices and this hurt the small farmer Small holder farmers and landless laborers migrated to urban areasSmall holder farmers and landless laborers migrated to urban areas Growth in urban population increased the potential of industrializationGrowth in urban population increased the potential of industrialization

14 Environmental Impact The accumulation of chemicals in the soil damaged it and after the initial success, the crop yields declined. More fertilizers and pesticides had to be used and that outweighed the increased yieldThe accumulation of chemicals in the soil damaged it and after the initial success, the crop yields declined. More fertilizers and pesticides had to be used and that outweighed the increased yield HYV require a lot of water and that has upset the water table. Moreover water is a scarce resourceHYV require a lot of water and that has upset the water table. Moreover water is a scarce resource The fish and leafy green vegetables (which were nutritious food sources) that co existed with paddy were killed by the pesticidesThe fish and leafy green vegetables (which were nutritious food sources) that co existed with paddy were killed by the pesticides

15 Environmental impact( cont.) Monocropping (growing one crop over a wide area) resulted in greater pest damage which was then controlled with increased pesticidesMonocropping (growing one crop over a wide area) resulted in greater pest damage which was then controlled with increased pesticides Reduced agricultural biodiversity as it relied heavily on production of just the HYV of cropsReduced agricultural biodiversity as it relied heavily on production of just the HYV of crops Land degradation has forced farmers to clearing forested land to keep up the productionLand degradation has forced farmers to clearing forested land to keep up the production

16 Borlaug’s response `a change in the right direction, but it has not transformed the world into a Utopia’ `some of the environmental lobbyists of the Western nations have never experienced the physical sensation of hunger. They do their lobbying from comfortable office suites in Washington or Brussels...If they lived just one month amid the misery of the developing world, as I have for fifty years, they'd be crying out for tractors and fertilizer and irrigation canals and be outraged that fashionable elitists back home were trying to deny them these things’

17 The Golden Revolution Dr. K.L. Chadha is known as the pioneer of Golden Revolution in India. It refers to the production of fruits and vegetables Horticulture development in India achieved through policies, building institutions, disseminating knowledge and energising the system for employment and entrepreneurship opportunities in horticulture sector millions of farmers in the country were benefited.

18 The achievements The demand of horticulture produce is on the rise due to increasing population, changing food habits, realization of high nutritional value of horticultural crops and greater emphasis on value addition and exportThe demand of horticulture produce is on the rise due to increasing population, changing food habits, realization of high nutritional value of horticultural crops and greater emphasis on value addition and export Horticultural crop production has brought prosperity even in and semiarid areas. Indian topography and agro climate are ideally suited for horticultureHorticultural crop production has brought prosperity even in and semiarid areas. Indian topography and agro climate are ideally suited for horticulture India is the leading horticultural country in the world with second highest production of fruits and vegetablesIndia is the leading horticultural country in the world with second highest production of fruits and vegetables Self sufficiency has been achieved in many cropsSelf sufficiency has been achieved in many crops Exports of fresh and processed fruits is increasingExports of fresh and processed fruits is increasing It is a viable commercial venture for the farmersIt is a viable commercial venture for the farmers

19 Some Horticulture Statistics

20 The Challenges Fast eroding gene poolFast eroding gene pool Fast population build upFast population build up Shrinking land and other natural resourcesShrinking land and other natural resources Production constraintsProduction constraints Post harvest lossesPost harvest losses Produce has to be of international quality and globally competitive due to globalizationProduce has to be of international quality and globally competitive due to globalization

21 Innovation is always evolving NO REVOLUTION IS PERMANENT They are not `Final Solutions’ rather they are `Place Holders’ till the next one comes along


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