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Department of Economics Bapatla College of Arts & Science Indian Agriculture – An Overview.

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1 Department of Economics Bapatla College of Arts & Science Indian Agriculture – An Overview

2 Some facts…. By 2050 global population will rise to 9 billion….out of which 1.7 billion will be in India alone Total calorie requirement will go up from 2495 to 3000 Food grain production would need to increase by 5.5 MT annually Demand for high-value food commodities will go up by > 100% due to migration of people into cities, increased wealth, shift towards diets rich in protein Currently.. 52% of our population is involved in Agriculture.... yet it contributes just 13.7% to India’s GDP

3 Hectare of Arable Land Source: UN and FAO, 2005 Arable Land (ha) per person Most populous countries have least room to expand Produce more with less… Land | Water | Labor Growing resource constraints Much of India’s total arable area already in use (46%) Most remaining land has serious soil and terrain constraints

4 There is also the problem of…. Decreasing size of landholding 86% growers in India are smallholders They cultivate 44% of the land and contribute 50% to farm output Landholding declined from 2.30ha in the 70s to 1.32 ha in Average size would be a mere 0.68 ha in 2020 and 0.32 ha in 2030

5 And the degradation of the production environment…. Soil erosion has degraded million ha of land in India 8.4 million ha has soil salinity and water-logging Water-table & water quality deteriorating Green-revolution belt exhibiting problems owing to over-exploitation and mismanagement of soil-and-water resources

6 Source: UN-Water and FAO Agriculture is India’s largest user of water >40% lost to inefficient practices Nearly 50% agricultural land is rain- fed Produce more with less… Land | Water | Labor

7 Source: UN-Water and FAO Farm demographics- aging population and migration to cities influence labor availability High-tech machines, complex production processes and strict production regulations require skilled labor Produce more with less… Land | Water | Labor

8 Indian Agriculture India agriculture has an extensive background which goes back to 10 thousand years. At present, in terms of agricultural production, the country holds the second position all over the world. Indian Agriculture has made rapid strides since independence; From food shortages and import to self-sufficiency and exports. From subsistence farming to intensive and technology led cultivation. Today, India is the front ranking producer of many crops in the world. Ushered in through the green, white, blue and yellow revolutions

9 Indian Agriculture – Respective Global Rank

10 ● Contributes to 14% of GDP ● Provides food to 1.25 Billion people ● Sustains 65% of the population : helps alleviate poverty ● Produces 51 major Crops ● Provides Raw Material to Industries ● Contributes to 1/6th of the export earnings ● Huge bio-diversity : 46,000 species of plants & 86,000 species of animals Largest producer in the world of pulses, tea, and milk ● India was largest exporter of rice and guar gum, and second largest exporter of cotton and beef (buffalo meat). ● Second Largest producer of fruits & vegetables,wheat,rice,groundnut & sugarcane. ● Our major imports: edible oils (US $11 billion) and pulses (about US $ 3 billion). Indian Agriculture- Some Facts

11 Agriculture productivity in India to 2010

12 Indian Agriculture – Major Crop Areas Rice106 million tonnes Wheat96 million tonnes Coarse Cereals41 million tonnes Pulses20 million tonnes Oilseeds20.9 million tonnes Sugarcane29.9 million tonnes Total Geographical Area million hectares Net Area sown million hectares Gross Cropped Area – million hectares Major Crop Production;

13 Indian Agriculture – Strong regional variations in yield

14 ● STRENGTHS - Rich Bio-diversity - Arable land - Climate - Strong and well dispersed research and extension system ● OPPORTUNITIES - Bridgeable yield crops - Exports - Agro-based Industry - Horticulture - Untapped potential in the North Eastern part of India ● WEAKNESS - Fragmentation of land - Low Technology Inputs - Unsustainable Water Management - Poor Infrastructure - Low value addition ● THREATS - Unsustainable Resource Use - Unsustainable Regional Development - Imports - small and shrinking holding size (1.16 ha in ); - climate variability...high risk. Indian Agriculture – Present Scenario (SWOT) But the future is safe and optimistic for the next decade and more

15 10 challenges faced by agriculture in India Small and fragmented land holdings Manures, Fertilizers and Biocides Shortage of good quality Seeds for poor peasants Problem of Irrigation Lack of mechanization Soil erosion Agricultural marketing Inadequate storage facilities Inadequate transport Scarcity of capital

16 Thank You!


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