Presentation on theme: "Bully Prevention and Intervention Bullying has been a problem since a jealous Cain murdered his brother Abel. Or since the first caveman hit another over."— Presentation transcript:
Bully Prevention and Intervention Bullying has been a problem since a jealous Cain murdered his brother Abel. Or since the first caveman hit another over the head. Bullying starts in preschool, peaks during middle school years and declines during high school. Hazing does occur in colleges and universities.
"I hate school!" "I don't have any friends!" "I'm afraid to go to school." "The teachers don't do anything. I don't think they care about us at all." When our students make statements like these, how much can we expect of them in school? When students are afraid, when they do not feel safe in their school environment, they are functioning at the survival level, not at the intellectual level where learning takes place.
Bullying is a learned behavior that must be unlearned. Bullies must be taught better ways of relating to others. Bullying, whether it takes in the hallways or bathrooms, or over the Internet as "cyber-bullying," can undermine all educators' good intentions.
What is Bullying? One of the most commonly used definitions of bullying behavior is the one developed by Dr. Dan Olweus: "A student is being bullied when he or she is exposed, repeatedly and over time, to negative actions on the part of one or more students."
The elements of bullying behavior are: Intentional negative behavior on the part of the bullying individual, sometimes accompanied by "henchmen." Repeated activity on the part of the bullying individual. An uneven power relationship between the bullying individual and the victim of the bullying.
Students who are bullied frequently show these symptoms: They don't want to go to school and have higher absentee rates than other students. They are more likely to report disliking school. They tend to earn lower grades than students who are not bullied.
More symptoms: Possible decrease in classroom participation and socialization with other students. Thoughts about suicide. A variety of health problems. Returning from school with torn or damaged clothing. Unexplained loss of property or money.
Research Recent research efforts suggest that students who are bullied have characteristics that make them more likely to be victims of bullying behavior. Those characteristics include children with disabilities and special health care needs, children who are obese, and children who are known to be, or perceived to be gay, lesbian, or bisexual.
Characteristics of Victims Passive Victims: nonassertive, submissive, cautious, quiet, cries easily, collapses, few friends, anxious, insecure, lacks humor, and pro-social skills. Provocative Victims: aggressive, argumentative, disruptive, irritating behaviors, easily emotionally aroused, prolongs the conflict even when losing, and may be ADHD.
Other characteristics to watch out for: Sensitive children. Insecure children who lack self- confidence. For boys: physically weaker. For Girls: early maturation. Children who are afraid of getting hurt. Children who find it easier to associate with adults than with peers.
“Bully-Victim” There is also the child frequently referred to as a “Bully-Victim." This child attracts bullying through his or her provocative behavior. Physical Bullying may be what first comes to mind when adults think about bullying. However, the most common form of bullying—both for boys and girls—is Verbal Bullying (teasing, name- calling, threats, rumor spreading). It is also common for youth to bully each other through Social Isolation (fear, intimidation, shunning or leaving a child out on purpose).
What motivates children who bully others? There are several factors at work here: They enjoy being in charge, dominating others in a negative fashion and lack guilt. Parents or role model models aggression They derive satisfaction from inflicting injury, embarrassment, and suffering. Bully thinks in unrealistic ways, “I should always get what I want. They are "rewarded" by the bullying behavior through the distress of the child who is bullied and from being witnessed by bystanders.
“Bystanders” (Activate Bystanders) Most Children Who Bully Like to Have an audience. Bystanders Can help Stop Bullying Behavior. (students, teachers, neighbors, relatives, ect…) 85% of school population- “silent majority” Desensitized over time – diminished empathy Fear retaliation Don’t know what to do Afraid they will make things worse Worry about losing social status Don’t believe adults will help
What About Children Who Bully? They also share other disturbing characteristics. They are more likely to: Get into fights. Be injured in a fight. Steal or vandalize property. Drink alcohol and smoke tobacco products. Misuse other controlled or banned substances.
They are more likely to: Show signs of truancy. Drop out of school. Experience lower academic achievement in general. See the school climate as negative. Carry a weapon.
Bullying Affects the School Bullying behavior affects the entire school climate, which is why a bullying prevention program must include every person at the school. Bullying behavior interferes with student learning. Bullying behavior creates a climate of fear, indifference and disrespect. Non-bullying students may come to feel that there is a lack of control by adults in charge, or possibly simply a lack of caring.
“N.C.L.B.” It is also important to consider bullying behavior in the context of No Child Left Behind. NCLB specifically requires schools and school districts to maintain safe schools. Given that mandate, in addition to NCLB's emphasis on student performance and the need to show Adequate Yearly Progress, it is imperative to take positive, proven steps to reduce bullying behavior.
Types of Bullying There are different types of bullying, all of which can cause serious harm to the victims. Traditionally, we have focused on two major types: Direct Bullying and Indirect Bullying. We have provided information on four specific categories, because each category is unique and requires unique approaches.
DIRECT BULLYING: This is sometimes referred to as "traditional" bullying, because it's the kind that most people are familiar with. Direct bullying involves physical contact, such as hitting, pushing, throwing objects, destroying property and spitting. Playground extortion -- making the victim give the bully money or property -- also falls into this category. Teasing is also a form of direct bullying.
INDIRECT BULLYING: Sometimes referred to as "social bullying," this includes more subtle activities, such as shunning, rumor-spreading, and passing notes with negative information about the victim. The victim is sometimes the subject of cruel practical jokes.
CYBER-BULLYING: This involves the use of modern technology, principally the Internet, to harass, humiliate, threaten, or embarrass the victim. Technology used in cyber-bullying includes social websites, instant messaging, , chat rooms, personal websites, and cell phones with cameras.
TEACHER BULLYING: In a recent survey, 45% of the teachers surveyed admitted to having bullied students. While there are not many studies on this issue, there is a great deal of anecdotal evidence and a growing body of literature that suggests this area of bullying is more serious and more common than most of us realize. Modeling aggression, demeaning behaviors, and sarcasm all lead to bullying.
Survey A survey published in the Journal of the American Medical Association in 2001 showed the following results (15,600 students in grades 6-10 were questioned):
Results: 19% of students reported bullying others ”sometimes” or more often during the school term. 17% reported being bullied “sometimes” or more often. 6.3% reported bullying and being bullied.
Parents of children who are bullied by others can help them deal with the situation by: Helping their child to develop his or her own unique talents and positive characteristics. Encourage the child to make contact with friendly students in their classes. Encourage the child to learn how to get to know peers in new situations.
Reporting Parents should also encourage the child to report the bullying behavior if it is repeated and severe. They should also consider reporting the behavior to school authorities themselves, even if the child does not want to report the behavior. Sometimes parents have to override the wishes of the child. Parents should NOT encourage the child to "fight back" and they should never confront the parents of the child who is allegedly doing the bullying.
School Code of Conduct We will not bully others. We will try to help students who are bullied. We will invite students who are easily left out of activities to join us. When we know somebody is being bullied, we will tell an adult at the school and an adult at home.
School Wide Approach Needs assessment: kids, parents, teachers (survey, interview, class discussions) A plan that defines the problem, how to address it and who does what. Classroom lessons (teacher or counselor) Counseling services (refer to mental health) Train all stakeholders ( parents, teachers, staff) Focus on victims, bullies, and bystanders
Strategies for Helping Students “Intervention and Prevention” Bully Prevention Programs Conflict Resolution Skills Peer Mediation Programs Peer Leaders Listening Social Skills Training Self-Esteem Building Safety Training Stress Management
Strategies with Victims (Support Targets) Use supportive, fear reducing style Reduce self-blame by identifying cruel behavior Demonstrate compassion and empathy Connect victim to helpful peers Mobilize caring majority with in classroom Teach and model strategies Counsel: friendship skills, social skills, self- esteem, empowerment, decreasing isolation
Meeting with Students Who Bully (Counsel Bullies) 1. What did you do that caused you to be sent to this office? 2. How did you feel while you were being mean to this student? 3. How do you think this student feels about what you did? 4. How do you feel now about what happened? 5. What are the consequences of your choice to be mean to this student? 6. Will you stop being mean to others from now on? Explain why.
You Make A Difference!! As a Counselor, you’re shaping young lives. When you notice your students, reach out to them, and treat them with kindness and respect. All children need Positive Attention from a caring adult. When you model and teach acceptance and tolerance, you’re leading the way for them to do the same.
To Learn More Dan Olweus, Bullying at school Dorothea Ross, Childhood Bullying and Teasing (sections on bullying) Nan Stein et al: Bully-proof; Flirting or Hurting; Quit it! Linda Sanford, Strong at the Broken Places Visit for more information about bullyinghttp://www.stopbullyingnow.com
Questions/Comments? Philomena M. P. Bernard Professional School Counselor Central Middle School /Highland Elem /