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Nanochemistry PhD Halina Falfushynska. Objectives Recall the structures of carbon Recall the structures of carbon Describe the physical properties of.

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Presentation on theme: "Nanochemistry PhD Halina Falfushynska. Objectives Recall the structures of carbon Recall the structures of carbon Describe the physical properties of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nanochemistry PhD Halina Falfushynska

2 Objectives Recall the structures of carbon Recall the structures of carbon Describe the physical properties of buckminster fullerene Describe the physical properties of buckminster fullerene Learn that carbon can be used to make nanotubes Learn that carbon can be used to make nanotubes Describe some uses of nanotubes and fullerene derivatives Describe some uses of nanotubes and fullerene derivatives

3 Carbon structures Graphite: Graphite: black, opaque, lusterous, slippery, conducts electricity Diamond: Diamond: colourless, clear, lusterous, high m.p., does not conduct electricity Buckminster fullerene: Buckminster fullerene: Black solid, deep red solution in petrol

4 Fullerenes One example is the Buckminsterfullerene (Buckyball) One example is the Buckminsterfullerene (Buckyball) It has a formula C 60 It has a formula C 60 It is a black solid It is a black solid Dissolves in petrol to make a Dissolves in petrol to make a red solution Free moving electrons so conducts electricity Free moving electrons so conducts electricity They are spheres of only carbon atoms and are also allotropes of carbon

5 Fullerenes: Uses They can cage other molecules They can cage other molecules In the future this may be used to deliver drugs in small amounts for slow release. In the future this may be used to deliver drugs in small amounts for slow release. E.g. Cancer treatment E.g. Cancer treatment

6 Nanotubes – How big? Nanotubes are being developed for use in computer technology. These tubes are: 1-2nm diameter 100mm long

7 Nanotubes & Fullerene derivatives

8 Nanotubes Uses Biological: drug delivery, trap dangerous substances, immobilization of enzymes, DNA transfection Biological: drug delivery, trap dangerous substances, immobilization of enzymes, DNA transfection Paints: improving strength & conductivity Paints: improving strength & conductivity Actuators: changing electrical energy into mechanical energy e.g. robotics Actuators: changing electrical energy into mechanical energy e.g. robotics Electronics: semiconductors, diodes. Electronics: semiconductors, diodes. Chemical industry: catalysts e.g. zeolites in hydrocarbon cracking Chemical industry: catalysts e.g. zeolites in hydrocarbon cracking Excellent website: Excellent website:

9 A range of applications intended to improve life quality and to provide novel approaches to diagnostic and therapy, based on suitably designed nanostructures, nanoparticles or smart molecular systems. Currently, a number of research groups is studying such topics, as witnessed also by specifically devoted scientific journals.scientific journals

10 Types of nanotubes Semiconductor: It is a chiral nanotube - “twists” along its length. Conductor (metallic): Straight nanotubes [Only conducts electricity under specific conditions]

11 Application of nanochemistry This discipline involves both new materials and new principles, as powerful tools for an extremely effective action against a range of diseases. For example a physicochemical phenomenon called Surface Plasmon Resonance is used to develope a technology for drug discovery, antibody screening, ligand fishing and therapeutics.technology

12 Application of nanochemistry Futuristic kinds of nanorobots have been even imagined, able not only to take care of our health from inside our body, but also to replicate themselves or to modify themselves according to the specific problem to be solved.nanorobots Increasing funding initiatives are supporting this fascinating and promising research field.funding initiatives

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14 Nanomedicine Nanotechnology provides a wide range of new technologies for developing customized solutions that optimize the delivery of pharmaceutical products. Today, harmful side effects of treatments such as chemotherapy are commonly a result of drug delivery methods that don't pinpoint their intended target cells accurately. Researchers at Harvard and MIT, however, have been able to attach special RNA strands, measuring nearly 10 nm in diameter, to nano-particles, filling them with a chemotherapy drug. These RNA strands are attracted to cancer cells. When the nanoparticle encounters a cancer cell, it adheres to it, and releases the drug into the cancer cell. This directed method of drug delivery has great potential for treating cancer patients while avoiding negative effects (commonly associated with improper drug delivery)

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16 Nanorobotics Nanorobotics is the emerging technology field creating machines or robots whose components are at or close to the scale of a nanometer (10 −9 meters). More specifically, nanorobotics refers to the nanotechnology engineering discipline of designing and building nanorobots, with devices ranging in size from 0.1–10 micrometers and constructed of nanoscale or molecular components. [ The names nanobots, nanoids, nanites, nanomachines or nanomites have also been used to describe these devices currently under research and development. [

17 Diode : The nanotube is used here to connect two electrodes (yellow) on a silicon dioxide base (green) [Diodes allow a current to travel in one direction only] Superconductors or Insulators:

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20 NANOTUBES Properties Hexagons curled into a tube shape Hexagons curled into a tube shape Very strong Very strong Conducts electricity Conducts electricity Small with a large surface area Small with a large surface area Can be separated from liquid products for re-use Can be separated from liquid products for re-use Uses Reinforce Graphite in tennis racquets Semi conductors in electric circuits in modern computers and electric circuits Industrial catalysts Nanotubes are made by joining fullerenes together

21 Drug Delivery – ‘Buckydrugs’ ‘Cages’ made of Buckminster fullerene structures can be used to carry drugs

22 Bacteria can be used to carry drugs, DNA or sensors attached to nanoparticles into cells for treatment, gene therapy or diagnosis.

23 Replacing Antibiotics

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