Presentation on theme: "The study of materials at the nanoscale."— Presentation transcript:
1The study of materials at the nanoscale. What is Nanoscience?The study of materials at the nanoscale.follow the youtube link -
2Nano means small... very small It is a million times smaller than the smallest measurement you can see on your ruler!
3It is the unit we use to measure the building blocks of everything. a nanometre is…metres OR 1 nmConverting meters into nanometersIt is the unit we use to measure the building blocks of everything.
45 nanometres every second. A human fingernail grows e.g. A human fingernail grows 1 nanometre every second, the fact that you don’t see your nails growing shoes how small a nanometre is.A man’s beard grows5 nanometres every second.A human fingernail grows1 nanometre every second.
5This is a silver nanowire resting on a human hair This is a silver nanowire resting on a human hair. Look at a strand of your own hair and imagine how small that is…This slide shows a picture of a silver nanowire resting on a human hair, the nanowire would not be visible with the naked eye.
6Which of these is Gold? They both are! shutterstock_ jpg mining.comThey both are!
7At the nanoscale, strange things happen to materials – their properties can change.Different sizes of particles react to light differently.The colour of gold can range from purple to red depending on the size of the atom clusters.The colour materials reflect and absorb light depends on the size of the molecule.Image:
8Hundreds of years ago it was known as art Red stained glass gets its colour from nanoparticles of gold that are only 20 nanometres across.Orange glass gets its colour from gold nanoparticles that are 80 nanometres across.church-stained-glass-windows. co.ukSalado Indian, Arizona worldssmallestmuseum.comNow we call it nanotechnology
10Can get into small spaces Cheaper More energy efficient Why is small good?FasterLighterCan get into small spacesCheaperMore energy efficientThere are a number of potential advantages to nano-enabled devices.Information can move faster through thin wires.If things are smaller they will be lighter and can be utilised in smaller spaces.Smaller materials tend to be cheaper to make.They also generally more energy efficent as they weigh less and require less energy to run.
11for example zinc particles in sun cream Large Zinc Oxide particles appear white.Nano-scale ZnO particles appear clear.Both block harmful radiationHere a comparison is made between large and nano size zinc oxide particles–– particles typically found in sunscreen.Image: sydney.edu.au
12The use of nano ideas to make things better and cheaper. NanotechnologyThe use of nano ideas to make things better and cheaper.Here is a definition of nanotechnology.
13How do we build small things? “Top-down”– building something by starting with a larger part and carving away material (e.g. like a sculpture).In nanotechnology, chips for computers are made by using acid to dissolve away unwanted material to get the right piece.Nanomaterials can be manufactured using a focussed beam of ions that can cut away materials with atomic precision.
14“Bottom-up”– building something by assembling smaller parts (e. g “Bottom-up”– building something by assembling smaller parts (e.g. like building a car engine or Lego).In nanotechnology, atoms and molecules interact to make making nanowires from metals like silver, or carbon nanotubes.Nanoscience uses self assembly which is the arranging of particles into an ordered system.
15Uses of nanotechnology Health:Diagnostics, Cancer treatment andtargeted drug delivery.The following slides are covered in more detail in the individual modules.The pictures here show a stent used to keep arteries open made of carbon.A artists representation of a lab on a chip which would allow quick diagnosis with a single drop of blood.Magnetic nanoparticles being used in the treatment and diagnosis of illnesses.
16Uses of nanotechnology Materials:Sports industry, cosmetics, clothingand space elevators.Waterproof clothing such as rain jackets use nanoscience to create the waterproofing.Nanoparticles are also used in cosmetics such as sunscreen and anti wrinkle creams.Carbon fibre nanoparticles are used in sports equipment.In the future scientists are hoping to develop a space elevator to orbiting stations.Image:
17Uses of nanotechnology Faster processing, computers and smaller, more powerful mobile devices.Nanotechnology is helping to develop smaller, faster and more powerful computers.
18Uses of nanotechnology EnvironmentCleaner energy, better energy storage (batteries) andtreatment of water.Nanotechnology is helping to develop more efficient ways of capturing energy from sustainable sources like the sun. It is also being used to develop more effective methods of treating water.Image :
19Our bodies can detect nanoparticles. SummaryNanoscience is about understanding how materials behave at the nanoscale.Properties of materials are different at the nanoscale compared to bulk materials.Nanotechnology is about applying our understanding of materials to make new products and improve existing ones.Points to remember:How big a nanometre is.Our bodies can detect nanoparticles.Nanoparticles are not all man made.howsmall.jpg
20Activity 1 You will need A height chart or two metre rules. Fix the height chart vertically on a wall,or the two rules together.Lean your back against the height chartand stand up straight, heels touching the wall.Get someone to measure your height on the chart.Use a book held flat on your head for anaccurate measurement – why? Write your name on the chart.Write your height on the chart.How tall are you in nanometres? In metres?
21Activity 2Each group has nine test-tubes carefully filled with 9 ml of water and numbered 1 to 9 First person - with the Pasteur pipette, carefully measure 1 ml of food colouring and add it to tube number 1. Mix the tube thoroughly so that the colour is even throughout. Everybody smell the tube What does it smell of? Does it smell the same as the original food colouring? Put a stopper in the tube or tape over the top. .
22Activity 2 page 2*The next person takes 1 ml of liquid from the tube just closed and adds it to the next tube of water. Reseal the previous tube.Mix the tube thoroughly so that the colour is even throughout.Everybody smell the tube? What does it smell of?Does it smell the same as the original food colouring?*Repeat the instructions in red from * to * for each tube, one at a time.You are diluting the contents of tube 1 into tube 2, tube 2 into tube 3, and so on, until you dilute the contents of tube 8 into tube 9, repeating the mixing and smelling before doing the next dilution.
23At what point can you no longer see any red in the tubes? Activity 2 page 3At what point can you no longer see any red in the tubes?At what point can you no longer smell anything in the tubes?Is there a difference?In each tube the food colouring is ten times more dilute than the previous tube. By the time you reach the ninth tube the original food colouring has been diluted by a billion times,so for every part of food colouring there are a billion parts of water.This experiment shows the sensitivity of our senses.Our sense of smell allows us to detect very dilute amounts of food colouring after we are no longer able to see any trace of it.We can only see relatively large objects, but our sense of taste and sense of smell can detect individual molecules which are just tens of nanometres in size.