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Bonding and Structure By F.6A Chu Ka Chun (19) Discovery and Applications of fullerenes.

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Presentation on theme: "Bonding and Structure By F.6A Chu Ka Chun (19) Discovery and Applications of fullerenes."— Presentation transcript:

1 Bonding and Structure By F.6A Chu Ka Chun (19) Discovery and Applications of fullerenes

2 Meaning of fullerenes Fullerenes are a family of carbon allotropes. Fullerenes are a family of carbon allotropes. They are molecules composed entirely of carbon. They are molecules composed entirely of carbon. They are in the form of a hollow sphere, ellipsoid, or tube. They are in the form of a hollow sphere, ellipsoid, or tube.

3 Discovery of the first fullerene: C60 In 1985, Prof. Harold W. Kroto of the University of Sussex joined Robert F. Curl and Prof. Richard E. Smalley at Rice University to study the products of carbon vaporization. In 1985, Prof. Harold W. Kroto of the University of Sussex joined Robert F. Curl and Prof. Richard E. Smalley at Rice University to study the products of carbon vaporization. They carried out molecular beam experiments. They carried out molecular beam experiments. From the result, discrete peaks were observed corresponding to molecules with the exact mass of sixty or seventy or more carbon atoms. From the result, discrete peaks were observed corresponding to molecules with the exact mass of sixty or seventy or more carbon atoms. C60 was then discovered, and it was named buckminsterfullerene which is named after Richard Buckminster Fuller who designed geodesic domes which is the same structure as C60. C60 was then discovered, and it was named buckminsterfullerene which is named after Richard Buckminster Fuller who designed geodesic domes which is the same structure as C60. Shortly after discovery of C60, it came to discover the fullerenes. Shortly after discovery of C60, it came to discover the fullerenes. Harold Kroto Richard Errett Smalley Robert Floyd Curl

4 Construction of the model of C60 Cut out 12 pieces of regular pentagon paper and 20 pieces of regular hexagons paper, keeping the length of their sides as the same. Cut out 12 pieces of regular pentagon paper and 20 pieces of regular hexagons paper, keeping the length of their sides as the same. Use transparent tape to attach the shapes together. Use transparent tape to attach the shapes together. Each pentagon should be surrounded by 5 hexagons. Hexagons should be surrounded by three hexagons and three pentagons placed next to each other alternately. Each pentagon should be surrounded by 5 hexagons. Hexagons should be surrounded by three hexagons and three pentagons placed next to each other alternately. Fold up the large piece of paper to form a ball just as shown in the picture at the left. A model is finished! Fold up the large piece of paper to form a ball just as shown in the picture at the left. A model is finished!

5 Structures of some fullerenes C60 (Buckminsterfullerene) C60 (Buckminsterfullerene) - it is like the shape of a football *grey ball represents a carbon atom

6 Structures of some fullerenes - structure consists of 12 pentagons as faces only *grey ball represents a carbon atom C20 (the smallest possible fullerene) C20 (the smallest possible fullerene)

7 Applications of fullerenes Polymer Additives - fullerenes and fullerenic black are chemically reactive and can be added to polymer structures to create new copolymers with specific physical and mechanical properties. Polymer Additives - fullerenes and fullerenic black are chemically reactive and can be added to polymer structures to create new copolymers with specific physical and mechanical properties. Carbon Nanotubes - nanotubes are cylindrical fullerenes. These tubes of carbon are usually only a few nanometers wide, but they have high tensile strength, high electrical conductivity, high resistance to heat, and relative chemical inactivity. Carbon Nanotubes - nanotubes are cylindrical fullerenes. These tubes of carbon are usually only a few nanometers wide, but they have high tensile strength, high electrical conductivity, high resistance to heat, and relative chemical inactivity. These tubes can help to make useful substances. For examples: These tubes can help to make useful substances. For examples: - tennis racket - tennis racket - superconductor - superconductor - composite used in aircraft - composite used in aircraft

8 Reference websites More about fullerenes More about fullerenes More about the structure of fullerenes e#Methods_of_construction More about the structure of fullerenes e#Methods_of_construction e#Methods_of_construction e#Methods_of_construction


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