Presentation on theme: "Www.clean-drive.eu CLEAN DRIVE – a campaign for cleaner vehicles in Europe Contract: IEE/09/688/SI2.558236 Duration:17.04.2010 to 16.04.2013 Created: 16.04.2011."— Presentation transcript:
CLEAN DRIVE – a campaign for cleaner vehicles in Europe Contract: IEE/09/688/SI Duration: to Created:
Clean Vehicles and biofuels a possibility…
What is a Clean Vehicle? (Sweden has a national definition – are there other definitions?) Basic rules: Euro IV, diesel cars max. 5 mg particles/km 1. Cars that can be driven by alternative fuels - Max 9,2 l petrol eqv. / 100 km 2. Fuel efficient conventional cars driven by fossil fuels - Max 120 g CO 2 / km - Ca. 4,5 l diesel oil and 5,0 l petrol / 100 km 3. Electric vehciles (Max 37 kWh / 100 km) Both alternative fuels and more energy efficient cars are necessary!
Clean Vehicles = Win-Win Lower fuel consumption = lower fuel cost per Decreased benefit value 20-40% = lower tax for the driver and the company Reduced vehicle tax and better payment for the used car Cheaper fuel Free parking in many municipalities Local subsidies for purchase of clean vehicles No congestion tax / fee in Stockholm Profile and marketing value to customers and the society
Alternative fuel vehicles (e-tream) Hybrid vehicles Battery electric vehicles Gas – Natural Gas – Liquified Petroleum Gas Bio-fuels – Bio-diesel – Bio-ethanol – Bio-gas Hydrogen
Hybrid vehicles A hybrid vehicle has both, an internal combustion engine and an electric motor. Hybrids are cleaner and more efficient than conventional vehicles and their running costs are lower, but they cost more to buy. Advantages Reduction of fuel consumption Electric engine reasonable in inner-city areas Disadvantages Higher weight Higher costs Hybrid cars appear to be only a temporary solution however reasonable in many cases at the moment.
Battery electric vehicles Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) produce no emissions at the point of use, are near-silent and cheap to run. Advantages Low fuel costs No emission of CO2 and air pollutants (during operation) Gentle noises Disadvantages Less offers of fully-fledged cars In many cases low range and low speed Availability and sustainability of electricity source! Battery electric vehicles may be an adequate solution for distances up to 100 kilometres.
Gas Natural Gas Natural gas is predominantly methane (CH4) and is the same gas that most people are familiar with for domestic cooking and heating purposes. More accurately it is usually comprised of 70-90% methane with some ethane, propane and butane. Natural gas vehicles (NGVs) Natural Gas Vehicles have spark-ignition internal combustion engines and are broadly similar to petrol vehicles, but with different fuel storage and delivery mechanisms. Since natural gas does not liquefy under modest compression, it is usually stored onboard vehicles at very high pressure compressed natural gas (CNG). Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG) Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), is a mixture of propane (C3H8) and butane (C4H10). LPG is a gas at normal atmospheric pressure but liquefies at only modest pressure (approximately 20 bar). It is therefore stored onboard vehicles as a liquid at around 25 bar but is delivered into engine cylinders as a gas.
Gas Advantages Less fuel costs Less CO2 and air pollutants Mass-production vehicles available on the market In some cases promoted by natural gas producers Disadvantages Less range of cars Not everywhere a proper network of filling stations available Higher cost to acquire Costs for reconstruction Still a fossil fuel Natural or liquid gas is often a good solution for car pools and reasonable in areas adequately supplied with filling stations.
Bio-fuels Bio-Diesel Biodiesel (biological diesel) is a liquid elaborated biomass name for methyl esters from feedstock. Biodiesel can be made mainly from two types of sources: – from a wide range of vegetable oils – derived from waste cooking oil, animal fats, grease and tallow. Bioethanol Bioethanol is manufactured by fermentation of sugar, starch or cellulose feedstocks using yeast. The choice of feedstock depends on cost, technical and economic considerations, such as whether the technologies for manufacturing bioethanol are commercially Bio-Gas What is actually used from biogas for fuelling cars is its methane. Biogas is produced from organic waste decomposed by micro- organisms, as in a heap of compost. However, in the case of biogas, decomposition is anaerobic, which means that it takes place in an oxygen-free atmosphere.
Bio-fuels Advantages Less fuel costs (if subsidised) Less CO2 Some mass-construction vehicles are suitable to use biodiesel Biodiesel is already admixed to fossil diesel by up to 5 percent Disadvantages In many cases a modification of the engine is necessary Fuel supply to some extend difficult (except of biodiesel) The whole demand is unlikely to be provided by bio-fuels The total eco-balance of bio-fuels is often controversial and production costs are relatively high. Today these fuels are competitive only if they get tax reductions. In many cases vegetable oil and biodiesel have already proven to be adequate solutions.
Hydrogen Hydrogen (H2) can be burned in internal combustion engines (ICE) that are very similar to petrol engines, but which produce zero tailpipe emissions of CO2, CO and HC. Storing hydrogen is difficult as it is a gas in normal conditions with a low energy density. Advantages No emission of CO2 and air pollutants (during operation) Use in combustion engines and fuel cells tested Disadvantages Difficult storage of hydrogen Extensive production, not finally clarified Hydrogen appears not to be a reasonable solution today, because the sustainable production of Hydrogen and the storage and delivery systems are not clarified
Decrease of emissions – 2 ways Contract: IEE/09/688/SI Duration: to Created: Source: Transport & Environment 2010
The Swedish (European) car fleet 2007, something is happening… Total in SwedenKalmar County Type of car / fuel Totalt 2007 New sold 2007 Totalt 2007 New sold 2007 Petrol (89,351%) (54,440%) (90,901%) (56,811%) Diesel oil (8,263%) (33,545%) (7,742%) (32,655%) Electric126 (0,003%) 2 (0,001%) 0 (0,000%) 0 (0,000%) Elhybrids9 598 (0,225%) (1,004%) 187 (0,157%) 108 (1,419%) Ethanol (1,901%) (10,490%) (1,153%) 686 (9,011%) Gas (CNG) (0,256%) (0,520%) 54 (0,045%) 8 (0,105%) Other30 (0,001%) 0 (0,000%) 1 (0,001%) 0 (0,000%) Total Other: methanol, LPG, bio diesel (RME) etc. Source: SCB
CO 2 -emissions in average from new sold cars in Sweden and EU, figures from car manufacturers (g/km) - change for data from different EU countries 158 Sweden 2008: 174 g/km, 2009: 169 g/km (in your counrey?)
Share of biofuels 2009 in Sweden 5,4% Biofuels in the road transport sector 2009 (Source: The Swedish Energy Agency)
CO2-emissions still high in some EU-countries
Rich nations falling behind Europe on car CO2 emissions