When will the peak take place? U.S oil production peak Peak of world oilified discoveries Hubbert´s estimation for world peak Nowadays, the facts are Oil production in decline in 33 out of 48 2 out of 3 largest oil fields have peaked
Classification of Alt. fuels Gasoline type biofuels Diesel type biofuels Other types of internal combustion External combustion No combustion
BioEthanol Alcohol product produced from corn, sorghum, potatoes, wheat, sugar cane, even biomass such as cornstalks and vegetable waste.
Use in combustion engines Hydrous ethanol Anhydrous (or dehydrated) ethanol ETBE BioEthanol
BioEthanol - E100 MMMModifications in the engine to use the BioEthanol as pure fuel TTTTo increase the relation of compression. TTTTo change the mixture of fuel / air. TTTTo place spark plugs resistant to major temperatures and pressures. TTTTo place conduits resistant to the assault of tar after caulking. TTTTo add a mechanism that should facilitate the take-off in cold.
Domestically produced Burns 10 % more efficiently than gasoline FFVs are available and becoming more affordable. BioEthanol - PROs
Less energy content than gasoline. Fueling stations yet difficult to find. Production is yet limited. Infraestructure for fueling and distribution is yet insuffficient. BioEthanol - CONs
Example of BioEthanol : Focus FFV 1.8-litre engine Produces 70 % less carbon dioxide than its petrol equivalent. It develops 123 bhp. Fuel E85 is a mixture of ethanol (85%) and petrol (15% ). Price: 193 973 SEK
Hydrogen Is the lightest element Is the most abundant element in the Universe Is not a direct energy source It can be obtained by means of solar energy, eolic or hidraulic electricity. Nowadays 95% is obtained from fossil fuels
Obtaining Hydrogen Reformed with steam CH 4 + H 2 O CO + 3H 2 CO + H 2 O CO 2 + H 2 Water electrolysis H 2 O + Power H 2 + 1/2O 2 Photoelectrolysis
Obtaining Hydrogen Using the biomas Biomass gasification Pyrolysis Photobiologic production
Hydrogen production on board the vehicle Using methanol as fuel CH 3 OH + ½ O 2 CO 2 + 2 H 2 Using ethanol as fuel CH 3 CH 2 OH + 3H 2 O CO + CO 2 + 6H 2 Obtaining Hydrogen
Use of hydrogen in automotion Hydrogen combustion in a MCIA Fuel batteries
Hydrogen combustion in a MCIA Mazda Rx8 Hydrogen
Hydrogen combustion in a MCIA BMW 7 Series Hydrogen
Fuel batteries Electrochemical systems where energy from a chemical reaction is directly turned into electricity. Hydrogen + Oxigen =>Electricity + Water
Advantages of using hydrogen as a fuel Abundant element in the Universe High efficiency Emission zero of pollutants Low working temperatures and pressures Silent functioning
Disadvantages of using hydrogen as a fuel It is not a primary source. Obtaining pure hydrogen is really expensive. High storage and supply costs. High weight of fuel cells for the current prototypes High energetic expense to liquefy the hydrogen
BioDiesel Diesel equivalent, processed fuel derived from biological sources. It is composed by mono-alkyl esters made from the transesterification of both vegetable oils and animal fats. Glicerine is produced as a second product.