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Alternative fuels Is there life after petroleum?.

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Presentation on theme: "Alternative fuels Is there life after petroleum?."— Presentation transcript:

1 Alternative fuels Is there life after petroleum?

2 Hubbert’s Peak theory

3 When will the peak take place?  U.S oil production peak  Peak of world oilified discoveries  Hubbert´s estimation for world peak  Nowadays, the facts are  Oil production in decline in 33 out of 48  2 out of 3 largest oil fields have peaked

4 Classification of Alt. fuels  Gasoline type biofuels  Diesel type biofuels  Other types of internal combustion  External combustion  No combustion

5 Gasoline type biofuels  Ethanol  Buthanol  Methanol  P-Series  Hydrogen

6 Diesel type biofuels  Vegetable oils  Waste vegetable oils  Straight vegetable oils  Biodiesel

7 Other types of internal combustion  Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)  Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)  Propane  Synfuel

8 External combustion  Steam  Organic waste

9 No combustion  Electric  Solar cell cars

10 BioEthanol Alcohol product produced from corn, sorghum, potatoes, wheat, sugar cane, even biomass such as cornstalks and vegetable waste.

11  Use in combustion engines  Hydrous ethanol  Anhydrous (or dehydrated) ethanol  ETBE BioEthanol

12 BioEthanol - E100 MMMModifications in the engine to use the BioEthanol as pure fuel TTTTo increase the relation of compression. TTTTo change the mixture of fuel / air. TTTTo place spark plugs resistant to major temperatures and pressures. TTTTo place conduits resistant to the assault of tar after caulking. TTTTo add a mechanism that should facilitate the take-off in cold.

13  Domestically produced  Burns 10 % more efficiently than gasoline  FFVs are available and becoming more affordable. BioEthanol - PROs

14  Less energy content than gasoline.  Fueling stations yet difficult to find.  Production is yet limited.  Infraestructure for fueling and distribution is yet insuffficient. BioEthanol - CONs

15 Example of BioEthanol : Focus FFV  1.8-litre engine  Produces 70 % less carbon dioxide than its petrol equivalent.  It develops 123 bhp.  Fuel E85 is a mixture of ethanol (85%) and petrol (15% ).  Price: SEK

16 Hydrogen  Is the lightest element  Is the most abundant element in the Universe  Is not a direct energy source  It can be obtained by means of solar energy, eolic or hidraulic electricity.  Nowadays 95% is obtained from fossil fuels

17 Obtaining Hydrogen  Reformed with steam  CH 4 + H 2 O CO + 3H 2  CO + H 2 O CO 2 + H 2  Water electrolysis  H 2 O + Power H 2 + 1/2O 2  Photoelectrolysis

18 Obtaining Hydrogen  Using the biomas  Biomass gasification  Pyrolysis  Photobiologic production

19  Hydrogen production on board the vehicle  Using methanol as fuel CH 3 OH + ½ O 2 CO H 2  Using ethanol as fuel CH 3 CH 2 OH + 3H 2 O CO + CO 2 + 6H 2 Obtaining Hydrogen

20 Production cost of hydrogen

21 Use of hydrogen in automotion  Hydrogen combustion in a MCIA  Fuel batteries

22 Hydrogen combustion in a MCIA  Mazda Rx8 Hydrogen

23 Hydrogen combustion in a MCIA  BMW 7 Series Hydrogen

24 Fuel batteries  Electrochemical systems where energy from a chemical reaction is directly turned into electricity.  Hydrogen + Oxigen =>Electricity + Water

25 Advantages of using hydrogen as a fuel  Abundant element in the Universe  High efficiency  Emission zero of pollutants  Low working temperatures and pressures  Silent functioning

26 Disadvantages of using hydrogen as a fuel  It is not a primary source.  Obtaining pure hydrogen is really expensive.  High storage and supply costs.  High weight of fuel cells for the current prototypes  High energetic expense to liquefy the hydrogen

27 BioDiesel  Diesel equivalent, processed fuel derived from biological sources.  It is composed by mono-alkyl esters made from the transesterification of both vegetable oils and animal fats.  Glicerine is produced as a second product.

28 Obtaining Biodiesel

29 Sources for biodiesel  Vegetable oils  Genetically modified vegetable oils  Waste vegetable oils  Bad quality vegetable oils

30 Comparison to petroleum  Carbon monoxide: -50%  Carbon dioxide: -78%  Nitrogen oxide: +20%  BUT catalyc converters  Biodegradable and non-toxic

31 Natural Gas  Natural gas is a mixture of hydrocarbons, mainly methane (CH 4 ).  Other components: ethane, propane, nitrogen, helium, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, water vapour,…

32 Production of natural gas  Water or sewage treatment.  Gas wells.  Crude oil production

33 Use of natural gas as a fuel  Light-duty applications  Natural gas vehicles  Heavy-duty and medium-duty applications  Natural gas engines

34 Advantages of natural gas  Carbon monoxide 90 %  Nitrogen oxide 60 %  Carbon dioxide (greenhouse gas) 30-40%  CO and particulate matter > 90 %  NOx > 50 %

35 Conclusions Our ignorance is not so vast as our failure to use what we know Marion King Hubbert ( )


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