Presentation on theme: "Sustainable Transport & Mobility Sustainable Transport & Mobility Handbook Teacher Training The sole responsibility for the content of this presentation."— Presentation transcript:
Sustainable Transport & Mobility Sustainable Transport & Mobility Handbook Teacher Training The sole responsibility for the content of this presentation lies with the authors. It does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Communities. The European Commission is not responsible for any use that may be made of the information contained therein.
Sustainable Transport & Mobility Transport Accounts for around a third of all final energy consumption Responsible for over a fifth of greenhouse gas emissions Transport volumes are growing annually
Sustainable Transport & Mobility Ways of Transportation Land –Consumes on average 85% of the total energy used by transport Sea –about 7% of energy for transportation is used for maritime transport Air –Aviation uses about 8% of the energy needed for transport issues
Sustainable Transport & Mobility Energy Demand by Modes of Transport
Sustainable Transport & Mobility Impacts of Transport
Sustainable Transport & Mobility European Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Sustainable Transport & Mobility The Greenhouse Effect The greenhouse effect is the rise in temperature that the Earth experiences because certain gases in the atmosphere (water vapour, carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide, and methane, for example) trap energy from the sun by absorbing infrared radiation. Without these gases, heat would escape back into space and Earth’s average temperature would be about 30°C colder. Because of how they warm our world, these gases are referred to as greenhouse gases.
Sustainable Transport & Mobility Particulates in the Air (PM10) Transport not only produces gaseous pollutants but also small particles that can cause various diseases. These particles are mostly produced in the residential sector and by transport (especially from diesel engines).
Sustainable Transport & Mobility Particulates in the Air (PM10) Dusts with a particle size lower than 10 micrometers are considered as fine particles or particulate matter (PM10). Particles with diameters below 10 micrometer are considered as respirable, particulate matter smaller than 2,5 micrometer can penetrate into the gas exchange regions of the respiratory tract and also affect other organs besides the lung itself.
Sustainable Transport & Mobility PM10 Emissions in Europe
Sustainable Transport & Mobility Energy Efficiency in Transport - Approaches Alternative Fuels Alternative Vehicles (designs, engines, etc.) Transport management systems Sustainable driving
Sustainable Transport & Mobility Fuels Traditionally, the word fuel denoted any substance, or mix of substances, that after a burning chemical reaction, produces a large amount of heat. Alternative fuels are any substances or sources of energy other than conventional fuels (gasoline and diesel), that can be used for transport. They are also called “non– conventional fuels”.
Sustainable Transport & Mobility Oil based fuels Gasoline- a volatile flammable liquid hydrocarbon mixture used as a fuel especially for internal combustion engines and usually blended from several products of natural gas and petroleum. Diesel - produced from petroleum and is a hydrocarbon mixture, obtained in the fractional distillation of crude oil between 200° C and 350° C at atmospheric pressure.
Sustainable Transport & Mobility Gasoline Composition The octane number (ON) is the main criterion for determining the antiknock quality of gasoline. It is determined through the comparison of gasoline with standard compounds, with a known octane number.
Sustainable Transport & Mobility Alternative Fuels
Sustainable Transport & Mobility Fuels from Natural Gas Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)
Sustainable Transport & Mobility Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Liquefied petroleum gas or LPG is a colourless hydrocarbon gaseous mixture, mainly containing propane and butane (i.e. 60% propane and 40 % butane or even 100% propane, or 100% butane).
Sustainable Transport & Mobility Hydrogen Fuel Cell The Hydrogen fuel cell uses Hydrogen as fuel and Oxygen as oxidant.
Sustainable Transport & Mobility Biofuels A bio fuel is a gaseous, liquid, or solid substance of biological origin that is used as a fuel.
Sustainable Transport & Mobility Bioethanol in EU
Sustainable Transport & Mobility Example - Hybrid car Mixture of an electrical and conventional drive train Designed to obtain different objectives like improved fuel economy, increased power, etc.
Sustainable Transport & Mobility How does it work? The car transforms energy from braking into electric energy Energy is stored in batteries Batteries do not need external power supply or recharging Electric motor assists the engine in accelerating, passing or hill climbing Engine is shut off automatically when the car stops and so prevents waste of energy from idling
Sustainable Transport & Mobility Example - Hybrid car
Sustainable Transport & Mobility Battery Powered Transport Electric vehicle batteries (EVBs) are rechargeable batteries used in all- electric vehicles (EVs) or in plug-in Hybrid-Electric Vehicles (PHEVs). The amount of electrical energy stored in any battery is measured in ampere hours, while energy is usually measured in watt hours.
Sustainable Transport & Mobility Battery Charging Batteries in electric cars must be periodically recharged. The most common way of charging these batteries is to use the electricity grid (at home or in on-road recharging points), that delivers power generated from a variety of energy resources (including coal, nuclear, etc.).
Sustainable Transport & Mobility Transport Modes- Space Occupancy
Sustainable Transport & Mobility Example – Sustainable driving Requires a general change of behaviour Can easily be carried out by everyone Can improve mileage by 15-20% Reduces Greenhouse Gas emissions
Sustainable Transport & Mobility Ecodriving – Driving Tips Accelerate and brake smoothly Slow down and watch your speed Let aggressive drivers pass by Plan your trips Coast down hills and slight grades Etc.
Sustainable Transport & Mobility Questions? Any questions…?
Sustainable Transport & Mobility Other Renewable Sources Solar Energy Solar energy is considered to be a renewable energy as it is available as long the Sun exists, i.e. as long as life on Earth exists. Sunlight can be converted into thermal energy (solar-thermal modules) or into electrical energy (photovoltaic modules). Wind Power Wind’s kinetic energy can be converted into mechanical or electrical energy, by using wind turbines.
Sustainable Transport & Mobility Alternative Fuels Alcohols, compressed natural gas (CNG), electricity (stored in batteries or fuel cells), hydrogen, liquefied natural gas (LNG, and liquefied petroleum gas LPG or propane) as alternative fuels. Other alternative fuels include biodiesel, wood, vegetable oil, biomass, and peanut oil.