I.What is Chemistry? A.Chemistry is the study of matter and the changes it undergoes.
II.What is matter? A.Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space.
III.Mass vs. Weight A.Mass 1.Reflects the amount of matter in an object 2.Constant and does not change regardless of location B.Weight 1.Reflects the amount of matter in an object 2.Changes depending on the gravitational pull
IV.Scientific Method A.Systematic approach used to solve a problem B.The main steps: 1.Observations 2.Hypothesis 3.Experiments 4.Data/Results 5.Analysis 6.Conclusions
VI. Types of Observations —describes physical characteristics 1.Color, odor, shape —numerical information 1.How much, how little, how big, how fast A.Qualitative data B.Quantitative data
VII. Testing Hypotheses A.Hypothesis—a proposed explanation for an observation B.Experiment—a method to test a hypothesis 1.Variables i.Independent—manipulated variable; the variable that you change during the experiment
ii.Dependent—responding variable; the variable that is measured during the experiment iii.Control—the standard for comparison D ependent R esponding Y -axis M anipulated I ndependent X -axis “DRY MIX”
Lower the pH by adding aluminum to the soil Raise the pH by adding phosphorus in the soil Hydrangeas water
VIII. Data/Results A.Collecting qualitative/quantitative data B.Making graphs, tables, charts
IX.Analysis A.Describing patterns and trends using your data B.Calculate degree of uncertainty
X.Conclusion A.Accept or reject hypothesis B.Identify sources of error C.Suggestions for further experimentation
XI. Theory vs. Law A.Scientific Theory 1.the “why” 2.An explanation that has been supported by many experiments, based on data B.Scientific Law 1. the “what” 2.Concise statement that describes and summarizes events of many experiments and observations