What Is Chemistry? ◦ Why is the scope of chemistry so vast? 1.1
Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space. Chemistry is the study of the composition of matter and the changes that matter undergoes. 1.1
◦ Because living and nonliving things are made of matter, chemistry affects all aspects of life and most natural events. 1.1
Alchemy ◦ How did alchemy lay the groundwork for chemistry? 1.3
◦ Alchemists developed the tools and techniques for working with chemicals. 1.3
Alchemists developed processes for separating mixtures and purifying chemicals. They designed equipment that is still in use today including beakers, flasks, tongs, funnels, and the mortar and pestle. Mortar and Pestle 1.3
The Scientific Method ◦ What are the steps in the scientific method? 1.3
The scientific method is a logical, systematic approach to the solution of a scientific problem. Steps in the scientific method include making observations, testing hypotheses, and developing theories. 1.3
Use one or more of the 5 senses to gather information A noting and recording of…. FACTS!!! ◦ Example: There are 23 desks in the room.
Logical interpretation based upon prior knowledge and experience Based upon observations ◦ Example: When you entered the room, you most likely inferred that the individual in the front of the room is the teacher.
In laboratory exercises, record observations NOT inferences Inferences may be used when writing the conclusion to your lab. Let’s test your observation skills… ◦ You’ll need a piece of paper and a writing utensil
1. What animals are crossing the road? 2. How many pedestrians are in the crosswalk? 3. Is there a manhole in the street? 4. What are the pedestrians wearing on their feet? 5. Are all pedestrians in the crosswalk wearing hats? 6. How many American flags are flying? 7. Is the traffic light red, green or yellow? 8. What city is this?
On the next slide, state whether the statement is an observation or an inference.
1. There is a representation of a face on one side of the coin. 2. The Latin word "Dei" means "God." 3. The coin was made by deeply religious people. 4. The date 1722 is printed on one side of the coin. 5. The coin was made in 1722. 6. The face on the coin is a representation of the nation's president.
Qualitative observations – ◦ Descriptive; do not involve measurement ◦ Color, texture, smell, taste Quantitative observations – ◦ Measurements or counted quantities ◦ Mass, volume, temperature, density ◦ There are 18 students in the room Most experiments involve both types of observations.
Observe for one minute and record qualitative observations…
◦ Testing Hypotheses An hypothesis is a proposed explanation for an observed set of facts. You make daily hypotheses: You observe that your flashlight won’t work. You guess the flashlight needs new batteries so you test your hypothesis by putting new batteries in the flashlight. What is another example? 1.3
An experiment is a procedure that is used to test a hypothesis. When you design experiments, you deal with variables, or factors that can change. The variable that you change during an experiment is the manipulated variable, or independent variable. The variable that is observed during the experiment is the responding variable, or dependent variable. When graphing data, the independent variable goes on the X axis and the dependent on the Y axis. An experiment was done to determine the effect of pH on the rate of a chemical reaction. Which variable goes on the x axis and which on the y? 1.3
◦ Developing Theories Once a hypothesis meets the test of repeated experimentation, it may become a theory. A theory is a well-tested explanation for a broad set of observations. A theory may need to be changed at some point in the future to explain new observations or experimental results. Atomic theory states that the atom is composed of a positive nucleus surrounded by a negative electron cloud. 1.3
◦ Scientific Laws A scientific law is a concise statement that summarizes the results of many observations and experiments. A scientific law doesn’t try to explain the relationship it describes. That explanation requires a theory. The law of conservation of matter states that matter is neither created nor destroyed during a chemical reaction. 1.3