Presentation on theme: "AKA THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD THE ACQUIREMENT OF SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE."— Presentation transcript:
AKA THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD THE ACQUIREMENT OF SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE
WHAT IS THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD? Defined as an organized, logical approach to solve a problem or question
STEPS OF THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD Define a Problem or Ask a Question A clear statement of the problem or question is a crucial step in beginning an investigation
STEPS OF THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD Make Observations Use of all or some of the senses (sight, taste, feel, hearing, or smell) Called a qualitative observation Make a measurement Called a quantitative observation
STEPS OF THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD Formulate a Hypothesis Predict a possible answer to the problem or question It should be based on facts and observations Should be capable of testing
STEPS OF THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD Designing and Performing an Experiment Develop and follow a procedure Include a detailed materials list The outcome must be measurable (quantifiable) Experiment must be controlled and include independent and dependent variables! Experimental evidence will either support or contradict hypothesis
INDEPENDENT VARIABLE (THE CAUSE) The independent, or manipulated variable, is a factor that’s intentionally varied by the experimenter Goes after the “If” in your hypothesis!
DEPENDENT VARIABLE (THE EFFECT) The dependent, or responding variable, is the factor that may change as a result of changes made in the independent variable Goes after the “Then” in your hypothesis!
CONTROL GROUP In a scientific experiment, the control is the group that serves as the standard of comparison The control group may be a “no treatment" or an “experimenter selected” group
CONTROL GROUP The control group is exposed to the same conditions as the experimental group, except for the variable being tested All experiments should have a control group!
STEPS OF THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD Collect and Analyze Results Data, such as observations and measurements, are recorded and then analyzed Confirm the results by retesting Put your data into a data table Make the data table into a graph Graphs make it easier to see patterns in the data! DRY MIX D ependent variable = R esponding variable = Y -axis M anipulated variable = I ndependent variable = X -axis If the data support the hypothesis, then the conclusion would state that the hypothesis is supported If the data contradict the hypothesis, then a new hypothesis must be made and tested
STEPS OF THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD Draw a Conclusion Scientists base their conclusions on observations made during experimentation Include a statement that accepts or rejects the hypothesis A hypothesis is NEVER correct or incorrect Make recommendations for further study and possible improvements to the procedure
IN SUMMARY… Careful observation and collection of data is the foundation of any experiment Observations must be reproducible and may be categorized as: Qualitative Descriptive, e.g., blue Quantitative Measureable, e.g., 4.0 cm What is an inference ? An inference is an explanation or assumption of what is observed These are conclusions and may change as more data is collected
TIME FOR THE CANDLE DEMO Watch closely and list as many observations as you can on page 14 of your notebook! Then, identify each observation as quantitative, qualitative, or an inference A table like the one below may be useful in organizing your thoughts: ObservationQualitative Quantitative Inference
WHOA!! Did any of your earlier observations change after your last observation (eating the candle)? How does this relate to what we discussed about the scientific method?
YOUR TURN! Time to apply the scientific method with the Gum Lab!