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The Foundations of Rome

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2 The Foundations of Rome
Preview Starting Points Map: Italy and the Mediterranean Main Idea / Reading Focus Roman Civilization Develops Quick Facts: Etruscan Influences Rome Becomes a Republic Quick Facts: Checks and Balances in the Roman Government The Republic Expands Faces of History: Two Commanders of the Punic Wars

3 Click the icon to play Listen to History audio.
Click the icon below to connect to the Interactive Maps.

4 The Foundations of Rome
Main Idea From a small town on the banks of an Italian river, Rome grew to control the entire Mediterranean region. Reading Focus Where and how did Roman civilization develop? What led to Rome’s becoming a republic? What were the major events in Rome’s expansion?

5 Roman Civilization Develops
“All roads lead to Rome.” “Rome was not built in a day.” “When in Rome . . .” How did Rome win such a place in modern popular culture? Peninsula logical place for emergence of mighty empire Juts south from Europe far into Mediterranean Sea Lies almost halfway between eastern, western boundaries of the sea Protected by mountains, sea Rich soil, mild climate Italy’s Geography Legend: Romulus and Remus, twin brothers raised by she-wolf; founded city 753 BC Members of Indo-European tribe, Latins, reached Italy 1000s BC; built Rome City prospered partly from location on Tiber River Valuable trade routes, easy access to sea The Founding of Rome

6 The Etruscans Rome first ruled by Latin Kings
Came under Etruscan rule, 600 BC Etruscans came from northern Italy Evidence found at cemeteries indicates Etruscans great metalworkers, jewelers Etruscan culture heavily influenced by Greeks Etruscans had great influence on Roman society


8 What advantages did Rome’s location give the city?
Summarize What advantages did Rome’s location give the city? Answer(s): protected by mountains; sea provided protection and transportation; had rich soil, pleasant climate; located on major trade routes; Tiber River provided easy access to the sea

9 Rome Becomes a Republic
Etruscan Rule Ends Etruscans ruled Rome until about 509 BC Romans revolted, threw out last of kings, setup new type of government Republic—elected officials governed state Patricians In early days, heads of a few aristocratic families, patricians, elected officials Patrician families controlled all society—politics, religion, economics, military Maintained power through patronage system Plebeians From beginning, common people, plebeians, challenged patricians for power Invaders threatened 494 BC; plebeians refused to fight until changes made Patricians knew they would have no army, expanded plebeian rights

10 Plebeian Council After receiving new rights, plebeians formed own assembly, Plebeian Council, to oversee affairs and protect interests Gained right to elect officials known as tribunes Tribunes’ job—protect against unjust treatment by patrician officials Gained right to veto—ban laws that seemed harmful, unjust Laws 450 BC, plebeians forced patricians to have all laws written down Laws displayed in Roman Forum, central square, on 12 large bronze tablets Because laws were posted, patrician judges could not make decisions based on own opinions or secret laws One new law banned marriage between patricians and plebeians

11 Republican Government
Patricians, plebeians worked out practical constitution Created new offices of government Consisted of three parts: Senate, popular assemblies, magistrates Initially dominated by patricians; all state offices later open to both patricians, plebeians New Offices and Institutions Senate: 300 members, advised elected officials, controlled public finances, handled all foreign relations Popular assemblies: in these all citizens voted on laws, elected officials Magistrates: governed in name of Senate and people, put laws into practice, acted as priests Elements of Government

12 Governing Details Consuls Censors Praetors Constraints
When last king thrown out, his place taken by two magistrates called consuls Elected for one year; chief executives, army commanders Censors Next most important after consuls Recorded wealth, residence of population Filled vacancies in Senate Praetors Primarily judges, could act for consuls if consuls away at war After terms ended, given military commands, appointed provisional governors Constraints Government worked well because of system of checks, balances Each part could impose certain constraints on others


14 Life in the Republic During the days of the Roman Republic, Rome was a thriving and vibrant city. At its heart was the Forum, the public square and site of the most important government buildings and temples. Nestled between two hills: Palatine, Capitoline Palatine, where wealthy lived Capitoline, where grandest temples were Location City leaders often found in Forum mingling with common people Senate met in Forum Key public addresses made there Political Center Forum more than just political center Popular place for shopping, gossip Busy shops lined either side of Forum Public celebrations usually held there Busy Place

15 Legend of Early Republic
Agrarian Roots Despite bustling nature of city, Romans prided themselves on connection with soil Farming, landownership the noblest ways to make money Senators forbidden to participate in any career that did not involve land, could not engage in commerce Roman tie to land illustrated in legend of early Republic Romans turned to greatest general, Cincinnatus, to save them from invasion Cincinnatus plowing fields at the time Legend of Early Republic People made Cincinnatus dictator Office of dictator had nearly unlimited power but could be held for only six months Cincinnatus defeated enemies and returned to farm Had no interest in retaining power Return to Farm

16 Why do you think the Romans established a republic?
Draw Conclusions Why do you think the Romans established a republic? Answer(s): possible answer—They wanted a system of laws to keep peace within their expanding empire.

17 The Republic Expands Growth Military Might Roman Army
As Rome’s government changed, the Roman population continued to grow Rome needed more land for expanding population Began to settle surplus population on land acquired by conquering neighbors Military Might Successful expansion not possible without powerful army All Roman men between ages 17 and 46 with minimum amount of property required to serve in army during times of war Roman Army Organized into units called legions, backbone of which were centurions Centurions: noncommissioned officers who each commanded 100 men Army highly disciplined, well-trained force, could fight in all types of terrain

18 The Conquest of Italy Sicily
265 BC, Romans had defeated Etruscans and Greek cities in Southern Italy Romans imposed two strict conditions on subject people—subjects had to provide troops for Roman army, abandon any dealings with foreign nations Other than those conditions, Rome rarely interfered with domestic affairs of people it conquered Sicily Once in control of Italy, Rome turned attention to Sicily, large island to south of Italian Peninsula In Sicily, Rome came into conflict with Carthage, powerful North African trading city Conflict grew into series of three wars Punic Wars raged for nearly 80 years

19 The Punic Wars Violence between Rome and Carthage broke out in 264 BC. Because the First Punic War was fought mostly at sea, Carthage’s powerful navy dominated the early fighting. Soon, however, the Romans built a navy of their own and were able to defeat Carthage. Violence soon broke out again 218 BC, Carthaginian general Hannibal led army across Pyrenees, Alps to invade Italy Hannibal ravaged Italy, defeated every army he faced Romans needed new strategy Hannibal Romans decided to take war to Africa General Publius Cornelius Scipio sailed to Africa, besieged Carthage Forced Hannibal to sail home Scipio defeated Hannibal, took Carthage, won Second Punic War Scipio The Romans had defeated Carthage, but it did not destroy the city as many citizens had wanted.


21 Huge losses of Second Punic War remained in memories of many Romans
Carthage Falls Huge losses of Second Punic War remained in memories of many Romans 149 BC Rome decided to destroy old enemy once and for all Declared war on Carthage for third time After siege of three years, Carthage fell Romans enslaved entire population, completely destroyed city They banned any people from living there

22 The Conquest of Greece Macedonia, Persia Greek Culture
Punic Wars raged in western republic; Rome involved in politics of eastern Mediterranean Hellenistic kingdoms of Macedonia, Persia, and Egypt fought constantly; Greek city-states feared being conquered City-states sought alliance with Rome Romans, Greek allies fought, and defeated Macedonia, Persia Both became Roman provinces Eventually Romans annexed Greece as province as well Romans adopted many elements of Greek culture, particularly art Macedonia, Persia Romans also borrowed ideas of religion from Greeks, adopted their gods but changed the names Not all Romans happy with growing Greek influence, thought Rome should remain purely Roman Influence continued for many years Greek Culture

23 How did Rome come to dominate the Mediterranean world?
Sequence How did Rome come to dominate the Mediterranean world? Answer(s): by conquering its Mediterranean neighbors, including Carthage and Greece

24 From Republic to Empire
Preview Main Idea / Reading Focus Problems in the Late Republic Rome Becomes an Empire Map: The Roman Empire The Pax Romana

25 From Republic to Empire
Main Idea Governmental and social problems led to the end of the Roman Republic and the creation of a new form of government. Reading Focus What problems did leaders face in the late Roman Republic? How did Rome become an empire? What helped tie the Roman empire together during the Pax Romana?

26 Problems in the Late Republic
By the mid-100s BC, Rome had no rival anywhere in the Mediterranean world. However, the responsibilities of running their vast holdings stretched the Roman political system to its limits. Revolution began in political, social institutions Tensions grew between classes of Roman society Gracchi brothers tried to resolve tension Social Unrest Tribune Tiberius Gracchus noted mistreatment of soldier-farmers Many reduced to poverty Tiberius, brother Gaius tried to help soldiers Soldier-Farmers Gracchi tried to redistribute public land to farmers Had public support, but Senate feared Gracchi trying to reduce its power Senate urged mobs to kill brothers Public Land

27 The Military in Politics
107 BC, social unrest reached new level General Gaius Marius elected consul Eliminated property restrictions Accepted anyone who wanted to join army Armies, private forces devoted to general Poor hoped to share plunder at end of war Ruthless generals realized loyalty of troops could be used as political tool

28 Social and Civil Wars Rome’s Italian allies had been trying to obtain Roman citizenship Senate wanted to maintain monopoly on power, refused 90 BC, Social War broke out Italian rebels were defeated, but Senate agreed to give them citizenship The Social War Social War revealed talent of General Lucius Cornelius Sulla Sulla became consul, 88 BC; after consulship ended, Marius tried to prevent Sulla from taking military command Sulla marched on Rome, won civil war, became dictator Carried out program of reforms to protect power of Senate Civil War

29 What challenges faced Rome in the late Republic?
Summarize What challenges faced Rome in the late Republic? Answer(s): slave revolts, social unrest, the Social War, and a civil war in which Sulla became dictator

30 Rome Becomes an Empire The First Triumvirate End of Triumvirate
Sulla paved the way for major changes in Rome’s government. The end of the Republic resulted from the ambitions of a few individuals. Julius Caesar, Gnaeus Pompey, Licinius Crassus helped bring end to Republic Caesar, Pompey successful military commanders Crassus one of wealthiest people in Rome 60 BC, the three took over Roman state, ruled as First Triumvirate The First Triumvirate Crassus died; Pompey, Caesar fought civil war Caesar defeated Pompey, took full control of Rome, became dictator for life, 44 BC Caesar brought many changes to Rome, popular reforms Senate feared he would destroy Roman Republic, murdered him, Ides of March End of Triumvirate

31 The Second Triumvirate
Caesar’s murder did not save the Republic 43 BC, Second Triumvirate took power—Caesar’s adopted son, Octavian; loyal officer Marc Antony; high priest Lepidus Lepidus pushed aside; Antony, Octavian agreed to govern half the empire each, Octavian in west, Antony in East Civil War Civil war between Octavian, Antony broke out Octavian defeated Antony and his ally, Egypt’s Queen Cleopatra Cleopatra, Antony committed suicide; Octavian alone controlled Rome Republic effectively dead; new period in Roman history beginning

32 From Octavian to Augustus
Octavian Takes Power Octavian faced task of restoring order in empire Had no intention of establishing dictatorship when he took power New Political Order Octavian decided it impossible to return Rome to republican form of government Created new political order, known today as the empire Principate Octavian careful to avoid title of king or emperor Called himself princeps, “first citizen” Government called Principate New Title 27 BC, Senate gave Octavian title Augustus, “the revered one” Title a religious honor; able to wear laurel and oak leaf crown

33 The Augustan Age New Imperial Government Foreign Affairs Legacy
Augustus head of state more than 40 years, made smooth transition to new imperial government with power divided between him and Senate Most financial, administrative matters under Augustus’s control Foreign Affairs Started program to bring peace to west, particularly to Gaul, Spain Began series of conquests that pushed border eastward to Danube River Also took special care of Rome itself Legacy Created police force, fire brigades; stockpiled food, water Began building program; presided over moral, religious reforms Great period of cultural creativity; great writers like Horace, Ovid, Virgil

34 Julio-Claudians and Flavians
Augustus died AD 14, empire ruled by Caesar’s relatives for 54 years Julio-Claudian Emperors’ abilities varied widely Tiberius a good soldier, competent administrator Caligula, brutal, mentally unstable; appointed favorite horse as consul AD 68, last of Julio-Claudians, Nero committed suicide Following Nero’s death, civil wars raged in Rome Four military leaders claimed throne in turn Last, Vespasian reestablished order, as did reigns of two sons Stability returned under Flavians Flavians AD 96, new line of emperors established—Good Emperors Five rulers governed Rome for almost a century From provinces different than Rome, continued opening Roman imperial society The Good Emperors

35 Empire grew tremendously under Good Emperors
The Good Emperors Empire grew tremendously under Good Emperors Reached limits of expansion under Trajan Added what are now Romania, Armenia, Mesopotamia, and the Sinai Peninsula Successor Hadrian thought empire too large Withdrew from almost all eastern additions Built defensive fortifications to guard against invasions Built wall 73 miles long in northern Britain


37 How did Rome grow and change after it became an empire?
Explain How did Rome grow and change after it became an empire? Answer(s): The Roman Empire reached the limits of its territorial expansion and made developments in building, government, and culture.

38 The Pax Romana The period from the beginning of August’s reign in 27 BC until the death of the last of the Good Emperors in AD 180 is often called the Pax Romana—the Roman Peace. This era was characterized by stable government, a strong legal system, widespread trade, and peace. Roman government strongest unifying force in empire Maintained order, enforced laws, defended frontiers Aristocracy participated, but emperors made all important decisions Government Empire divided into provinces ruled by governors appointed from Rome Provincial government fair, efficient Government in Rome kept close check on governors Any citizen could appeal unfair treatment directly to emperor Provinces Empire brought uniformity to the cities of the Mediterranean world, which were governed in imitation of Rome.

39 Legal System Laws Agriculture Manufacturing
Roman law unified the empire Laws specified what could, could not be done; penalties for breaking law Same laws applied to everyone in empire, wherever they lived Agriculture Agriculture remained primary occupation throughout Pax Romana Most farms, independent with little, no surplus to sell Tenant farmers began to replace slaves on large farms Manufacturing Manufacturing increased throughout empire Italy, Gaul, Spain—artisans made cheap pottery, textiles Fine glassware made in eastern cities like Alexandria

40 Opportunities for Trade
Italy imported grain, meat, raw materials from provinces Merchants brought silks, linens, glassware, jewelry, furniture from Asia Rome, Alexandria became commercial centers Transportation Commercial activity possible because of empire’s location around Mediterranean and extensive road network Ultimately about 50,000 miles of roads bound empire together Military and Merchant Routes Most roads built, maintained for military purposes Cheaper to transport grain by ship from one end of Mediterranean to other than to send it overland; most goods went by sea

41 How did government, law, and trade tie the Roman people together?
Analyze How did government, law, and trade tie the Roman people together? Answer(s): The Roman government was the strongest unifying force, maintaining order, enforcing the laws, and defending the frontiers. Roman law provided stability and, with few exceptions, the same laws applied to everyone in the empire. Trade provided opportunities for commerce between people in different parts of the empire.

42 Roman Society and Culture
Preview Main Idea / Reading Focus Life in Imperial Rome Quick Facts: Roman Society Rome’s Cultural Legacy

43 Roman Society and Culture
Main Idea The Romans developed a complex society and pioneered cultural advances that, even today, affect life all over the world. Reading Focus What social and cultural factors influenced life in imperial Rome? What achievements shaped Rome’s cultural legacy to the modern world?

44 Life in Imperial Rome Life for the Rich Public Life
Images of Rome from movies and stories: Gladiators in combat, temples of marble, soldiers marching to war. What was life really like? Pax Romana provided prosperity for many Rich citizens Had both city, country homes Homes had conveniences like running water, baths Wealthy men spent much time in politics Life for the Rich Public officials not paid; only wealthy could afford to hold office Roman politicians worked to perfect public-speaking skills Ties of marriage, friendship, family alliances as important as common interests for public officials, political groups Public Life

45 Life for the Poor Nearly 1 million Romans lived in crowded three- or four-story apartment buildings Fire a constant threat Torches used for light Charcoal used for cooking To keep poor from rebelling Free food, public entertainment offered Two things interested public—bread, circuses

46 Public Entertainment Entertainments Bloody Spectacles Public Baths
Romans of all classes enjoyed circus, chariot races Held in Circus Maximus—racetrack could hold 250,000 spectators Also liked theater, mimes, jugglers, dancers, acrobats, clowns Bloody Spectacles Romans enjoyed spectacles in amphitheaters Wild animals battled each other and professional fighters Gladiator contests most popular, performed in Colosseum for 50,000 people Public Baths Popular places for entertainment Romans well aware of importance of bathing, hygiene for health Many public baths had steam rooms, meeting rooms, and pools for socializing

47 Patriarchal Structure Education and Religion
Family Head of family—paterfamilias, family father—oldest living male Had extensive powers over other members of family Within family structure, virtues of simplicity, religious devotion, obedience emphasized Adoption important in Roman society, a way to ensure family name would be carried on Women could do little without intervention of male guardian, more freedom in lower classes Patriarchal Structure Upper class Romans placed great value on education Parents taught children at home; wealthy families hired tutors or sent sons to exclusive schools to learn Latin, Greek, law, math, public speaking Romans adopted much from Greek mythology, also from Egyptians, others Each family worshipped local household gods, penates Many worshipped emperor Education and Religion

48 Signs and Augurs Worshipping the gods
Romans believed gods sent signs, warnings Came in form of natural phenomena Flight of birds, arrangement of entrails of sacrificial animals Paid respect to augurs Priests who specialized in interpreting signs Nothing important undertaken without first consulting augurs


50 How was life different for rich and poor citizens in Rome?
Contrast How was life different for rich and poor citizens in Rome? Answer(s): Rich—often had two homes and spent time in politics, women's lives controlled by guardians; Poor—lived in crowded conditions, lower-class women had more freedom, often worked outside the home

51 Rome’s Cultural Legacy
Although the Western Roman Empire fell in 476, much of Roman culture continued to influence life for centuries. In fact, we can still see many of the legacies of the great empire today. Romans less interested in original scientific research than in collecting and organizing information Science and Engineering Physician, AD 100s Wrote volumes summarizing all medical knowledge of his day Greatest authority in medicine for centuries Galen Ptolemy stated knowledge of others as single theory in astronomy Pliny the Elder wrote about Mount Vesuvius Other Thinkers

52 Practical Knowledge Concrete
Romans practical, tried to apply knowledge gained from science to planning cities, building water, sewage systems, improving farming Roman engineers constructed roads, bridges, amphitheaters, public buildings, aqueducts to bring water to cities Without aqueducts, cities would not have grown as large Concrete Romans developed concrete, with which they built amazing structures that still stand today Roman bridges still span French, German, Spanish rivers Roads that connected Rome with provinces still survive today Added urban plan to every city they conquered; many still seen today

53 Architecture and Language
Locations Many examples still seen throughout southern Europe, northern Africa, Southwest Asia Dominant advances—round arch and the vault Advances Arch, vault allowed Romans to construct larger buildings than earlier societies Have been used for centuries, still seen in many countries Ruins Ruins of buildings inspired generations of architects Michelangelo, Thomas Jefferson, others Beyond Latin Romance languages developed from Latin Spanish, French, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian

54 Legacies English Literature Law Civil Law Systems
English owes much vocabulary to Latin Examples: et cetera, veto, curriculum Literature Technique of satire derived from Roman authors For centuries, writers have borrowed from authors like Virgil Law Romans used system called civil law, based on written code Adopted by many countries in Europe after empire fell Civil Law Systems Systems carried to Asian, African, American colonies Roman influence still seen in today’s legal system worldwide

55 What are some areas in which Rome’s influence is still seen?
Summarize What are some areas in which Rome’s influence is still seen? Answer(s): science, engineering, architecture, language, literature, and law

56 The Rise of Christianity
Preview Main Idea / Reading Focus Christianity and Judaism Jesus of Nazareth The Spread of Christianity Map: The Spread of Christianity The Early Christian Church

57 The Rise of Christianity
Main Idea A new religion called Christianity developed within the Roman Empire and gradually spread throughout the Roman world. Reading Focus How was Christianity rooted in the teachings of Judaism? What were the teachings of Jesus of Nazareth? How did Christianity spread throughout the Roman world? What was the early Christian Church like?

58 Christianity and Judaism
Teachings of Jesus of Nazareth developed into new religion—Christianity Many of teachings rooted in beliefs, customs of Judaism 63 BC, Romans conquered Judaea, chose new ruler for region, installed him as king Judaism in the Roman World Jews had to pay tribute to Romans but unwilling to abandon religion for polytheistic religion of Romans Roman leaders allowed Jews to practice religion as long as they paid tribute, maintained civic order Roman Compromise

59 Judaism in the Roman World
Reactions to Roman Rule Judaism had different branches, varying ideas on cooperation with Romans Zealots called on fellow Jews to drive Romans from Judaea, reestablish Kingdom of Israel Zealots Zealots formed pockets of resistance against Romans of Judaea After mass uprising AD 66–70, Romans sacked Jerusalem, killed thousands of Jews, destroyed Second Temple Messianic Prophecies After revolt in 130s, all Jews banned from Jerusalem Not all Jews willing to take up arms; others waited coming of Messiah— spiritual leader prophesied to restore ancient kingdom, bring peace to world

60 What were two Jewish reactions to Roman rule?
Make Generalizations What were two Jewish reactions to Roman rule? Answer(s): refused to give up religion; Zealots wanted to rise up against Roman rule

61 Jesus of Nazareth Life Preaching
Against this background, a spiritual leader named Jesus of Nazareth emerged, teaching people to prepare for God’s Judgment Day. Nearly all knowledge of Jesus comes from Gospels—first four books of New Testament New Testament and books of Hebrew Bible make up today’s Christian Bible Jesus born in Bethlehem, near Jerusalem Learned carpentry, studied writings of Jewish prophets Life Jesus preached message of renewal and warning Gathered group of disciples Created excitement by performing miracles of healing; defending poor, oppressed Instructed people to repent of sins, seek God’s forgiveness Must love God above all, love others as much as self Preaching

62 Death and Resurrection
Jesus’s popularity, crowds alarmed authorities who feared political uprisings Jesus arrested, tried, sentenced to death According to New Testament, after crucifixion Jesus rose from dead Spent 40 days teaching disciples Ascended into heaven Followers believed Resurrection, Ascension revealed Jesus as the Messiah

63 What was the main message of Jesus’s teaching?
Summarize What was the main message of Jesus’s teaching? Answer(s): Followers must love God above all else, and love others as they loved themselves.

64 The Spread of Christianity
After Jesus’s death, his disciples began teaching that all people could achieve salvation—the forgiveness of sins and the promise of everlasting life. Jesus’s 12 disciples worked to spread message Earliest Christian missionaries Apostles traveled widely, teaching mostly in Jewish communities Apostles Paul, originally known as Saul, born in Tarsus, in Asia Minor Had actively opposed those teaching that Jesus was the Messiah Paul of Tarsus Paul had conversion on way to Damascus, became Christian If not for his work, Christianity might have remained a branch of Judaism Conversion

65 Converting the Gentiles
Paul believed God sent him to convert non-Jews, or Gentiles Paul helped make Christianity broader religion, attracted many new followers Helped establish Christian churches throughout eastern Mediterranean Paul’s epistles, or letters, to those churches later became part of the New Testament Roman Christianity Paul found some Jewish customs hindered missionary work among non-Jews, dispensed with those requirements for Christians Paul emphasized new doctrines that helped distinguish Christianity from Judaism Christianity spread; message of love, eternal life after death found appealing By AD 300, some 10 percent of Roman people were Christian

66 Persecution Results Threat Imperial Approval
As Christianity spread through Roman world, some local officials feared Christians conspiring against them; arrested, killed many Christians Those killed seen by Christians as martyrs, people who die for their faith Threat Christians persecuted at local level, but large-scale persecution rare during first two centuries after Jesus’s life Large-scale persecution by Romans grew as rulers saw Christianity as threat Imperial Approval Spread of Christianity hastened by conversion of emperor Constantine AD 313, Constantine made Christianity legal within empire, Edict of Milan By late 300s, polytheism gradually disappeared from empire


68 What helped spread Christianity through the Roman world?
Find the Main Idea What helped spread Christianity through the Roman world? Answer(s): Paul of Tarsus and other disciples; Constantine’s conversion; outlawing of public non-Christian sacrifices by Theodosius

69 The Early Christian Church
Communities Earliest Christian churches not only spiritual organizations but close-knit communities Provided all kinds of support for members Complex Support included burial services, food, shelter Christianity grew; organization became more complex Deepening Faith Ceremonies developed to inspire people’s faith, make them feel closer to Jesus One ceremony was Eucharist Ceremonies During Eucharist, people eat bread, drink wine in memory of Jesus’s death, resurrection With baptism, people are admitted to the faith

70 Expansion of the Church
By about 100, priests who were trained in these ceremonies became prominent within Christianity. The authority of the priests was based on the authority Jesus gave the Apostles. This spiritual authority distinguished the priests from the general congregation of the church. Church expanded, developed administrative structure Bishop oversaw church affairs, had authority over other priests 300s, heads of oldest congregations, patriarchs, had authority over other bishops Administrative Structure Many believed Peter founded Roman Church, was first bishop Later bishops of Rome, popes, Peter’s spiritual heirs Gospel of Matthew: Jesus gives Peter keys to kingdom of heaven Therefore future popes inherit keys Peter the Apostle Patriarchs did not recognize the popes’ supremacy claims at first, but over time popes gained more influence within the Christian Church.

71 How did the Christian Church change as it grew?
Summarize How did the Christian Church change as it grew? Answer(s): Special ceremonies and rituals developed; priests became a special class within Christianity; bishops had authority over priests; the bishop of Rome became a pope.

72 The Fall of Rome Preview Main Idea / Reading Focus The Empire Weakens
Attempts at Reform Invasion and Fall Map: Division and Invasion of the Roman Empire Quick Facts: Causes and Effects of the Fall of Rome Visual Study Guide / Quick Facts Video: The Impact of Ancient Rome on the World Today

73 The Fall of Rome Main Idea Reading Focus
Events and conditions inside as well as outside the Roman Empire weakened it and led to its collapse in the west in the 400s. Reading Focus What problems weakened the empire in the 200s? How did Diocletian and Constantine attempt to reform the empire? What caused the invasion and ultimate fall of the empire in the 400s?

74 Military Dictatorship
The Empire Weakens The Roman army’s inability to stop the Huns was one symptom of the weakness that befell the empire after the end of the Pax Romana. After 180, empire confronted by challenges from outside, growing problems within When last of Good Emperors died, Rome had no strong leader Civil wars broke out Rome under increasing threat of invasions on eastern, western frontiers Weak Leaders Emperors increased size of Rome’s army Demands on financial resources, military caused economic crisis Empire: military dictatorship Legions deposed emperors, elevated own leaders to throne Twenty emperors in 49 years; all but one died violently Military Dictatorship

75 Economic Troubles Inflation
Insecurity of civil wars, invasions affected Roman life Robbery, piracy increased; travel hazardous Merchants feared to ship goods Military needs required more revenue; emperors raised taxes Inflation Value of money declined as taxes rose Emperors minted new coins with copper, lead, and silver People refused to accept currency at face value Result was dramatic rise in prices, or inflation

76 What problems faced Rome in the late 200s?
Analyze What problems faced Rome in the late 200s? Answer(s): The empire had weak leaders, civil wars, threats of invasion, and inflation led to a weak economy. Piracy and robbery made travel hazardous.

77 Attempts at Reform The crises of the 200s shattered the Roman world. Drastic reforms had to be made if the empire were to survive. Two capable emperors rose to power and gave the empire another two centuries of life. Diocletian took power, 284 Changed empire into absolute monarchy Placed self above subjects, ruled with no accountability to anyone Diocletian Divided empire in two to improve efficiency Ruled eastern half himself, appointed co-emperor to rule western provinces Caesars helped run empire Divided Empire Forced society into rigid order Sons to follow trades, social positions of fathers Peasants tied to land they farmed Increased army, full attention to defense Rigid Order

78 Imperial economy came under state direction with Diocletian
Economic Reforms Imperial economy came under state direction with Diocletian Commercial, manufacturing activities geared toward needs of imperial defense New tax system raised more money for government, army Reforms drastic, successful Saved empire from immediate economic collapse

79 Constantine Diocletian Retires State Control
Diocletian’s initiatives worked well while he remained emperor Diocletian, co-emperor retired, 305; two caesars rose to become co-emperors New emperors quarreled; empire plunged into civil war 312, order restored when Constantine declared emperor by his troops; put end to fighting Diocletian Retires Constantine continued state control over society Made two profound decisions to affect direction of future empire: converted to Christianity; built new capital—Constantinople, “city of Constantine”—on site of village of Byzantium Eastern half of empire richer, better defended; Constantine wanted capital there State Control

80 How did Diocletian and Constantine try to save Rome?
Analyze How did Diocletian and Constantine try to save Rome? Answer(s): Diocletian—tried to make governmental and economic reforms and build up the army; Constantine—moved capital to the eastern half of the empire

81 Invasion and Fall Unfortunately, the reforms of Diocletian and Constantine did not solve the overwhelming problems of the empire. During the 300s and 400s, these problems were only worsened by tribal peoples’ increasing pressures on the empire’s frontier. Germanic tribes lived along, raided Rome’s frontiers for centuries New peoples moved west from Central Asia, pushed Germanic tribes into empire Rulers in Rome, Constantinople tried to hold empire together The Invaders Late 300s, Huns stormed out of east and sent Germanic tribes fleeing Imperial defenses in east held, but those in west overwhelmed Huns formed vast empire among nomadic steppe peoples of Eurasia Huns About 370 Huns attacked the Ostrogoths, a Germanic people living north of the Black Sea.

82 Migrating Tribes Goths Vandals Attila
Assault on Ostrogoths frightened kinsmen, Visigoths Visigoths fled into Roman Empire, Italy Visigoths captured and sacked Rome itself, 410 Vandals Other migrating tribes soon attacked Roman Empire Infamous for destroying everything in path; Vandals attacked Rome in 450s Term vandal came to mean “one who causes senseless destruction” Attila Leader of Huns, led attack on Gaul Roman army allied with Visigoths, defeated Huns, 451 Attila next turned on Rome; but Pope Leo I persuaded him to leave Italy


84 Fall of the West Western Empire
Despite Huns’ withdrawal, Western Empire in shambles Germanic tribes ruled most of western provinces, including Italy Ostrogoths overthrew last emperor Many historians consider this the end of the Western Roman Empire Eastern Empire Despite western collapse, Eastern Empire endured for several centuries People of Eastern Empire always thought of selves as Romans Over time other influences, especially Greek, crept into culture As a result of these influences, historians refer to the later period of the Eastern Empire by a new name, the Byzantine Empire.


86 Identify Cause and Effect
How did invaders contribute to Rome’s fall? Answer(s): The invasion of tribes from Central Asia caused Germanic tribes to flee into the Empire, where resistance had been weakened.




90 Video The Impact of Ancient Rome on the World Today
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