2The Foundations of Rome PreviewStarting Points Map: Italy and the MediterraneanMain Idea / Reading FocusRoman Civilization DevelopsQuick Facts: Etruscan InfluencesRome Becomes a RepublicQuick Facts: Checks and Balances in the Roman GovernmentThe Republic ExpandsFaces of History: Two Commanders of the Punic Wars
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4The Foundations of Rome Main IdeaFrom a small town on the banks of an Italian river, Rome grew to control the entire Mediterranean region.Reading FocusWhere and how did Roman civilization develop?What led to Rome’s becoming a republic?What were the major events in Rome’s expansion?
5Roman Civilization Develops “All roads lead to Rome.” “Rome was not built in a day.” “When in Rome . . .” How did Rome win such a place in modern popular culture?Peninsula logical place for emergence of mighty empireJuts south from Europe far into Mediterranean SeaLies almost halfway between eastern, western boundaries of the seaProtected by mountains, seaRich soil, mild climateItaly’s GeographyLegend: Romulus and Remus, twin brothers raised by she-wolf; founded city 753 BCMembers of Indo-European tribe, Latins, reached Italy 1000s BC; built RomeCity prospered partly from location on Tiber RiverValuable trade routes, easy access to seaThe Founding of Rome
6The Etruscans Rome first ruled by Latin Kings Came under Etruscan rule, 600 BCEtruscans came from northern ItalyEvidence found at cemeteries indicates Etruscans great metalworkers, jewelersEtruscan culture heavily influenced by GreeksEtruscans had great influence on Roman society
8What advantages did Rome’s location give the city? SummarizeWhat advantages did Rome’s location give the city?Answer(s): protected by mountains; sea provided protection and transportation; had rich soil, pleasant climate; located on major trade routes; Tiber River provided easy access to the sea
9Rome Becomes a Republic Etruscan Rule EndsEtruscans ruled Rome until about 509 BCRomans revolted, threw out last of kings, setup new type of governmentRepublic—elected officials governed statePatriciansIn early days, heads of a few aristocratic families, patricians, elected officialsPatrician families controlled all society—politics, religion, economics, militaryMaintained power through patronage systemPlebeiansFrom beginning, common people, plebeians, challenged patricians for powerInvaders threatened 494 BC; plebeians refused to fight until changes madePatricians knew they would have no army, expanded plebeian rights
10Plebeian CouncilAfter receiving new rights, plebeians formed own assembly, Plebeian Council, to oversee affairs and protect interestsGained right to elect officials known as tribunesTribunes’ job—protect against unjust treatment by patrician officialsGained right to veto—ban laws that seemed harmful, unjustLaws450 BC, plebeians forced patricians to have all laws written downLaws displayed in Roman Forum, central square, on 12 large bronze tabletsBecause laws were posted, patrician judges could not make decisions based on own opinions or secret lawsOne new law banned marriage between patricians and plebeians
11Republican Government Patricians, plebeians worked out practical constitutionCreated new offices of governmentConsisted of three parts: Senate, popular assemblies, magistratesInitially dominated by patricians; all state offices later open to both patricians, plebeiansNew Offices and InstitutionsSenate: 300 members, advised elected officials, controlled public finances, handled all foreign relationsPopular assemblies: in these all citizens voted on laws, elected officialsMagistrates: governed in name of Senate and people, put laws into practice, acted as priestsElements of Government
12Governing Details Consuls Censors Praetors Constraints When last king thrown out, his place taken by two magistrates called consulsElected for one year; chief executives, army commandersCensorsNext most important after consulsRecorded wealth, residence of populationFilled vacancies in SenatePraetorsPrimarily judges, could act for consuls if consuls away at warAfter terms ended, given military commands, appointed provisional governorsConstraintsGovernment worked well because of system of checks, balancesEach part could impose certain constraints on others
14Life in the RepublicDuring the days of the Roman Republic, Rome was a thriving and vibrant city. At its heart was the Forum, the public square and site of the most important government buildings and temples.Nestled between two hills: Palatine, CapitolinePalatine, where wealthy livedCapitoline, where grandest temples wereLocationCity leaders often found in Forum mingling with common peopleSenate met in ForumKey public addresses made therePolitical CenterForum more than just political centerPopular place for shopping, gossipBusy shops lined either side of ForumPublic celebrations usually held thereBusy Place
15Legend of Early Republic Agrarian RootsDespite bustling nature of city, Romans prided themselves on connection with soilFarming, landownership the noblest ways to make moneySenators forbidden to participate in any career that did not involve land, could not engage in commerceRoman tie to land illustrated in legend of early RepublicRomans turned to greatest general, Cincinnatus, to save them from invasionCincinnatus plowing fields at the timeLegend of Early RepublicPeople made Cincinnatus dictatorOffice of dictator had nearly unlimited power but could be held for only six monthsCincinnatus defeated enemies and returned to farmHad no interest in retaining powerReturn to Farm
16Why do you think the Romans established a republic? Draw ConclusionsWhy do you think the Romans established a republic?Answer(s): possible answer—They wanted a system of laws to keep peace within their expanding empire.
17The Republic Expands Growth Military Might Roman Army As Rome’s government changed, the Roman population continued to growRome needed more land for expanding populationBegan to settle surplus population on land acquired by conquering neighborsMilitary MightSuccessful expansion not possible without powerful armyAll Roman men between ages 17 and 46 with minimum amount of property required to serve in army during times of warRoman ArmyOrganized into units called legions, backbone of which were centurionsCenturions: noncommissioned officers who each commanded 100 menArmy highly disciplined, well-trained force, could fight in all types of terrain
18The Conquest of Italy Sicily 265 BC, Romans had defeated Etruscans and Greek cities in Southern ItalyRomans imposed two strict conditions on subject people—subjects had to provide troops for Roman army, abandon any dealings with foreign nationsOther than those conditions, Rome rarely interfered with domestic affairs of people it conqueredSicilyOnce in control of Italy, Rome turned attention to Sicily, large island to south of Italian PeninsulaIn Sicily, Rome came into conflict with Carthage, powerful North African trading cityConflict grew into series of three warsPunic Wars raged for nearly 80 years
19The Punic WarsViolence between Rome and Carthage broke out in 264 BC. Because the First Punic War was fought mostly at sea, Carthage’s powerful navy dominated the early fighting. Soon, however, the Romans built a navy of their own and were able to defeat Carthage.Violence soon broke out again218 BC, Carthaginian general Hannibal led army across Pyrenees, Alps to invade ItalyHannibal ravaged Italy, defeated every army he facedRomans needed new strategyHannibalRomans decided to take war to AfricaGeneral Publius Cornelius Scipio sailed to Africa, besieged CarthageForced Hannibal to sail homeScipio defeated Hannibal, took Carthage, won Second Punic WarScipioThe Romans had defeated Carthage, but it did not destroy the city as many citizens had wanted.
21Huge losses of Second Punic War remained in memories of many Romans Carthage FallsHuge losses of Second Punic War remained in memories of many Romans149 BC Rome decided to destroy old enemy once and for allDeclared war on Carthage for third timeAfter siege of three years, Carthage fellRomans enslaved entire population, completely destroyed cityThey banned any people from living there
22The Conquest of Greece Macedonia, Persia Greek Culture Punic Wars raged in western republic; Rome involved in politics of eastern MediterraneanHellenistic kingdoms of Macedonia, Persia, and Egypt fought constantly; Greek city-states feared being conqueredCity-states sought alliance with RomeRomans, Greek allies fought, and defeated Macedonia, PersiaBoth became Roman provincesEventually Romans annexed Greece as province as wellRomans adopted many elements of Greek culture, particularly artMacedonia, PersiaRomans also borrowed ideas of religion from Greeks, adopted their gods but changed the namesNot all Romans happy with growing Greek influence, thought Rome should remain purely RomanInfluence continued for many yearsGreek Culture
23How did Rome come to dominate the Mediterranean world? SequenceHow did Rome come to dominate the Mediterranean world?Answer(s): by conquering its Mediterranean neighbors, including Carthage and Greece
24From Republic to Empire PreviewMain Idea / Reading FocusProblems in the Late RepublicRome Becomes an EmpireMap: The Roman EmpireThe Pax Romana
25From Republic to Empire Main IdeaGovernmental and social problems led to the end of the Roman Republic and the creation of a new form of government.Reading FocusWhat problems did leaders face in the late Roman Republic?How did Rome become an empire?What helped tie the Roman empire together during the Pax Romana?
26Problems in the Late Republic By the mid-100s BC, Rome had no rival anywhere in the Mediterranean world. However, the responsibilities of running their vast holdings stretched the Roman political system to its limits.Revolution began in political, social institutionsTensions grew between classes of Roman societyGracchi brothers tried to resolve tensionSocial UnrestTribune Tiberius Gracchus noted mistreatment of soldier-farmersMany reduced to povertyTiberius, brother Gaius tried to help soldiersSoldier-FarmersGracchi tried to redistribute public land to farmersHad public support, but Senate feared Gracchi trying to reduce its powerSenate urged mobs to kill brothersPublic Land
27The Military in Politics 107 BC, social unrest reached new levelGeneral Gaius Marius elected consulEliminated property restrictionsAccepted anyone who wanted to join armyArmies, private forces devoted to generalPoor hoped to share plunder at end of warRuthless generals realized loyalty of troops could be used as political tool
28Social and Civil WarsRome’s Italian allies had been trying to obtain Roman citizenshipSenate wanted to maintain monopoly on power, refused90 BC, Social War broke outItalian rebels were defeated, but Senate agreed to give them citizenshipThe Social WarSocial War revealed talent of General Lucius Cornelius SullaSulla became consul, 88 BC; after consulship ended, Marius tried to prevent Sulla from taking military commandSulla marched on Rome, won civil war, became dictatorCarried out program of reforms to protect power of SenateCivil War
29What challenges faced Rome in the late Republic? SummarizeWhat challenges faced Rome in the late Republic?Answer(s): slave revolts, social unrest, the Social War, and a civil war in which Sulla became dictator
30Rome Becomes an Empire The First Triumvirate End of Triumvirate Sulla paved the way for major changes in Rome’s government. The end of the Republic resulted from the ambitions of a few individuals.Julius Caesar, Gnaeus Pompey, Licinius Crassus helped bring end to RepublicCaesar, Pompey successful military commandersCrassus one of wealthiest people in Rome60 BC, the three took over Roman state, ruled as First TriumvirateThe First TriumvirateCrassus died; Pompey, Caesar fought civil warCaesar defeated Pompey, took full control of Rome, became dictator for life, 44 BCCaesar brought many changes to Rome, popular reformsSenate feared he would destroy Roman Republic, murdered him, Ides of MarchEnd of Triumvirate
31The Second Triumvirate Caesar’s murder did not save the Republic43 BC, Second Triumvirate took power—Caesar’s adopted son, Octavian; loyal officer Marc Antony; high priest LepidusLepidus pushed aside; Antony, Octavian agreed to govern half the empire each, Octavian in west, Antony in EastCivil WarCivil war between Octavian, Antony broke outOctavian defeated Antony and his ally, Egypt’s Queen CleopatraCleopatra, Antony committed suicide; Octavian alone controlled RomeRepublic effectively dead; new period in Roman history beginning
32From Octavian to Augustus Octavian Takes PowerOctavian faced task of restoring order in empireHad no intention of establishing dictatorship when he took powerNew Political OrderOctavian decided it impossible to return Rome to republican form of governmentCreated new political order, known today as the empirePrincipateOctavian careful to avoid title of king or emperorCalled himself princeps, “first citizen”Government called PrincipateNew Title27 BC, Senate gave Octavian title Augustus, “the revered one”Title a religious honor; able to wear laurel and oak leaf crown
33The Augustan Age New Imperial Government Foreign Affairs Legacy Augustus head of state more than 40 years, made smooth transition to new imperial government with power divided between him and SenateMost financial, administrative matters under Augustus’s controlForeign AffairsStarted program to bring peace to west, particularly to Gaul, SpainBegan series of conquests that pushed border eastward to Danube RiverAlso took special care of Rome itselfLegacyCreated police force, fire brigades; stockpiled food, waterBegan building program; presided over moral, religious reformsGreat period of cultural creativity; great writers like Horace, Ovid, Virgil
34Julio-Claudians and Flavians Augustus died AD 14, empire ruled by Caesar’s relatives for 54 yearsJulio-Claudian Emperors’ abilities varied widelyTiberius a good soldier, competent administratorCaligula, brutal, mentally unstable; appointed favorite horse as consulAD 68, last of Julio-Claudians, Nero committed suicideFollowing Nero’s death, civil wars raged in RomeFour military leaders claimed throne in turnLast, Vespasian reestablished order, as did reigns of two sonsStability returned under FlaviansFlaviansAD 96, new line of emperors established—Good EmperorsFive rulers governed Rome for almost a centuryFrom provinces different than Rome, continued opening Roman imperial societyThe Good Emperors
35Empire grew tremendously under Good Emperors The Good EmperorsEmpire grew tremendously under Good EmperorsReached limits of expansion under TrajanAdded what are now Romania, Armenia, Mesopotamia, and the Sinai PeninsulaSuccessor Hadrian thought empire too largeWithdrew from almost all eastern additionsBuilt defensive fortifications to guard against invasionsBuilt wall 73 miles long in northern Britain
37How did Rome grow and change after it became an empire? ExplainHow did Rome grow and change after it became an empire?Answer(s): The Roman Empire reached the limits of its territorial expansion and made developments in building, government, and culture.
38The Pax RomanaThe period from the beginning of August’s reign in 27 BC until the death of the last of the Good Emperors in AD 180 is often called the Pax Romana—the Roman Peace. This era was characterized by stable government, a strong legal system, widespread trade, and peace.Roman government strongest unifying force in empireMaintained order, enforced laws, defended frontiersAristocracy participated, but emperors made all important decisionsGovernmentEmpire divided into provinces ruled by governors appointed from RomeProvincial government fair, efficientGovernment in Rome kept close check on governorsAny citizen could appeal unfair treatment directly to emperorProvincesEmpire brought uniformity to the cities of the Mediterranean world, which were governed in imitation of Rome.
39Legal System Laws Agriculture Manufacturing Roman law unified the empireLaws specified what could, could not be done; penalties for breaking lawSame laws applied to everyone in empire, wherever they livedAgricultureAgriculture remained primary occupation throughout Pax RomanaMost farms, independent with little, no surplus to sellTenant farmers began to replace slaves on large farmsManufacturingManufacturing increased throughout empireItaly, Gaul, Spain—artisans made cheap pottery, textilesFine glassware made in eastern cities like Alexandria
40Opportunities for Trade Italy imported grain, meat, raw materials from provincesMerchants brought silks, linens, glassware, jewelry, furniture from AsiaRome, Alexandria became commercial centersTransportationCommercial activity possible because of empire’s location around Mediterranean and extensive road networkUltimately about 50,000 miles of roads bound empire togetherMilitary and Merchant RoutesMost roads built, maintained for military purposesCheaper to transport grain by ship from one end of Mediterranean to other than to send it overland; most goods went by sea
41How did government, law, and trade tie the Roman people together? AnalyzeHow did government, law, and trade tie the Roman people together?Answer(s): The Roman government was the strongest unifying force, maintaining order, enforcing the laws, and defending the frontiers. Roman law provided stability and, with few exceptions, the same laws applied to everyone in the empire. Trade provided opportunities for commerce between people in different parts of the empire.
42Roman Society and Culture PreviewMain Idea / Reading FocusLife in Imperial RomeQuick Facts: Roman SocietyRome’s Cultural Legacy
43Roman Society and Culture Main IdeaThe Romans developed a complex society and pioneered cultural advances that, even today, affect life all over the world.Reading FocusWhat social and cultural factors influenced life in imperial Rome?What achievements shaped Rome’s cultural legacy to the modern world?
44Life in Imperial Rome Life for the Rich Public Life Images of Rome from movies and stories: Gladiators in combat, temples of marble, soldiers marching to war. What was life really like?Pax Romana provided prosperity for manyRich citizensHad both city, country homesHomes had conveniences like running water, bathsWealthy men spent much time in politicsLife for the RichPublic officials not paid; only wealthy could afford to hold officeRoman politicians worked to perfect public-speaking skillsTies of marriage, friendship, family alliances as important as common interests for public officials, political groupsPublic Life
45Life for the PoorNearly 1 million Romans lived in crowded three- or four-story apartment buildingsFire a constant threatTorches used for lightCharcoal used for cookingTo keep poor from rebellingFree food, public entertainment offeredTwo things interested public—bread, circuses
46Public Entertainment Entertainments Bloody Spectacles Public Baths Romans of all classes enjoyed circus, chariot racesHeld in Circus Maximus—racetrack could hold 250,000 spectatorsAlso liked theater, mimes, jugglers, dancers, acrobats, clownsBloody SpectaclesRomans enjoyed spectacles in amphitheatersWild animals battled each other and professional fightersGladiator contests most popular, performed in Colosseum for 50,000 peoplePublic BathsPopular places for entertainmentRomans well aware of importance of bathing, hygiene for healthMany public baths had steam rooms, meeting rooms, and pools for socializing
47Patriarchal Structure Education and Religion FamilyHead of family—paterfamilias, family father—oldest living maleHad extensive powers over other members of familyWithin family structure, virtues of simplicity, religious devotion, obedience emphasizedAdoption important in Roman society, a way to ensure family name would be carried onWomen could do little without intervention of male guardian, more freedom in lower classesPatriarchal StructureUpper class Romans placed great value on educationParents taught children at home; wealthy families hired tutors or sent sons to exclusive schools to learn Latin, Greek, law, math, public speakingRomans adopted much from Greek mythology, also from Egyptians, othersEach family worshipped local household gods, penatesMany worshipped emperorEducation and Religion
48Signs and Augurs Worshipping the gods Romans believed gods sent signs, warningsCame in form of natural phenomenaFlight of birds, arrangement of entrails of sacrificial animalsPaid respect to augursPriests who specialized in interpreting signsNothing important undertaken without first consulting augurs
50How was life different for rich and poor citizens in Rome? ContrastHow was life different for rich and poor citizens in Rome?Answer(s): Rich—often had two homes and spent time in politics, women's lives controlled by guardians; Poor—lived in crowded conditions, lower-class women had more freedom, often worked outside the home
51Rome’s Cultural Legacy Although the Western Roman Empire fell in 476, much of Roman culture continued to influence life for centuries. In fact, we can still see many of the legacies of the great empire today.Romans less interested in original scientific research than in collecting and organizing informationScience and EngineeringPhysician, AD 100sWrote volumes summarizing all medical knowledge of his dayGreatest authority in medicine for centuriesGalenPtolemy stated knowledge of others as single theory in astronomyPliny the Elder wrote about Mount VesuviusOther Thinkers
52Practical Knowledge Concrete Romans practical, tried to apply knowledge gained from science to planning cities, building water, sewage systems, improving farmingRoman engineers constructed roads, bridges, amphitheaters, public buildings, aqueducts to bring water to citiesWithout aqueducts, cities would not have grown as largeConcreteRomans developed concrete, with which they built amazing structures that still stand todayRoman bridges still span French, German, Spanish riversRoads that connected Rome with provinces still survive todayAdded urban plan to every city they conquered; many still seen today
53Architecture and Language LocationsMany examples still seen throughout southern Europe, northern Africa, Southwest AsiaDominant advances—round arch and the vaultAdvancesArch, vault allowed Romans to construct larger buildings than earlier societiesHave been used for centuries, still seen in many countriesRuinsRuins of buildings inspired generations of architectsMichelangelo, Thomas Jefferson, othersBeyond LatinRomance languages developed from LatinSpanish, French, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian
54Legacies English Literature Law Civil Law Systems English owes much vocabulary to LatinExamples: et cetera, veto, curriculumLiteratureTechnique of satire derived from Roman authorsFor centuries, writers have borrowed from authors like VirgilLawRomans used system called civil law, based on written codeAdopted by many countries in Europe after empire fellCivil Law SystemsSystems carried to Asian, African, American coloniesRoman influence still seen in today’s legal system worldwide
55What are some areas in which Rome’s influence is still seen? SummarizeWhat are some areas in which Rome’s influence is still seen?Answer(s): science, engineering, architecture, language, literature, and law
56The Rise of Christianity PreviewMain Idea / Reading FocusChristianity and JudaismJesus of NazarethThe Spread of ChristianityMap: The Spread of ChristianityThe Early Christian Church
57The Rise of Christianity Main IdeaA new religion called Christianity developed within the Roman Empire and gradually spread throughout the Roman world.Reading FocusHow was Christianity rooted in the teachings of Judaism?What were the teachings of Jesus of Nazareth?How did Christianity spread throughout the Roman world?What was the early Christian Church like?
58Christianity and Judaism Teachings of Jesus of Nazareth developed into new religion—ChristianityMany of teachings rooted in beliefs, customs of Judaism63 BC, Romans conquered Judaea, chose new ruler for region, installed him as kingJudaism in the Roman WorldJews had to pay tribute to Romans but unwilling to abandon religion for polytheistic religion of RomansRoman leaders allowed Jews to practice religion as long as they paid tribute, maintained civic orderRoman Compromise
59Judaism in the Roman World Reactions to Roman RuleJudaism had different branches, varying ideas on cooperation with RomansZealots called on fellow Jews to drive Romans from Judaea, reestablish Kingdom of IsraelZealotsZealots formed pockets of resistance against Romans of JudaeaAfter mass uprising AD 66–70, Romans sacked Jerusalem, killed thousands of Jews, destroyed Second TempleMessianic PropheciesAfter revolt in 130s, all Jews banned from JerusalemNot all Jews willing to take up arms; others waited coming of Messiah— spiritual leader prophesied to restore ancient kingdom, bring peace to world
60What were two Jewish reactions to Roman rule? Make GeneralizationsWhat were two Jewish reactions to Roman rule?Answer(s): refused to give up religion; Zealots wanted to rise up against Roman rule
61Jesus of Nazareth Life Preaching Against this background, a spiritual leader named Jesus of Nazareth emerged, teaching people to prepare for God’s Judgment Day.Nearly all knowledge of Jesus comes from Gospels—first four books of New TestamentNew Testament and books of Hebrew Bible make up today’s Christian BibleJesus born in Bethlehem, near JerusalemLearned carpentry, studied writings of Jewish prophetsLifeJesus preached message of renewal and warningGathered group of disciplesCreated excitement by performing miracles of healing; defending poor, oppressedInstructed people to repent of sins, seek God’s forgivenessMust love God above all, love others as much as selfPreaching
62Death and Resurrection Jesus’s popularity, crowds alarmed authorities who feared political uprisingsJesus arrested, tried, sentenced to deathAccording to New Testament, after crucifixionJesus rose from deadSpent 40 days teaching disciplesAscended into heavenFollowers believed Resurrection, Ascension revealed Jesus as the Messiah
63What was the main message of Jesus’s teaching? SummarizeWhat was the main message of Jesus’s teaching?Answer(s): Followers must love God above all else, and love others as they loved themselves.
64The Spread of Christianity After Jesus’s death, his disciples began teaching that all people could achieve salvation—the forgiveness of sins and the promise of everlasting life.Jesus’s 12 disciples worked to spread messageEarliest Christian missionariesApostles traveled widely, teaching mostly in Jewish communitiesApostlesPaul, originally known as Saul, born in Tarsus, in Asia MinorHad actively opposed those teaching that Jesus was the MessiahPaul of TarsusPaul had conversion on way to Damascus, became ChristianIf not for his work, Christianity might have remained a branch of JudaismConversion
65Converting the Gentiles Paul believed God sent him to convert non-Jews, or GentilesPaul helped make Christianity broader religion, attracted many new followersHelped establish Christian churches throughout eastern MediterraneanPaul’s epistles, or letters, to those churches later became part of the New TestamentRoman ChristianityPaul found some Jewish customs hindered missionary work among non-Jews, dispensed with those requirements for ChristiansPaul emphasized new doctrines that helped distinguish Christianity from JudaismChristianity spread; message of love, eternal life after death found appealingBy AD 300, some 10 percent of Roman people were Christian
66Persecution Results Threat Imperial Approval As Christianity spread through Roman world, some local officials feared Christians conspiring against them; arrested, killed many ChristiansThose killed seen by Christians as martyrs, people who die for their faithThreatChristians persecuted at local level, but large-scale persecution rare during first two centuries after Jesus’s lifeLarge-scale persecution by Romans grew as rulers saw Christianity as threatImperial ApprovalSpread of Christianity hastened by conversion of emperor ConstantineAD 313, Constantine made Christianity legal within empire, Edict of MilanBy late 300s, polytheism gradually disappeared from empire
68What helped spread Christianity through the Roman world? Find the Main IdeaWhat helped spread Christianity through the Roman world?Answer(s): Paul of Tarsus and other disciples; Constantine’s conversion; outlawing of public non-Christian sacrifices by Theodosius
69The Early Christian Church CommunitiesEarliest Christian churches not only spiritual organizations but close-knit communitiesProvided all kinds of support for membersComplexSupport included burial services, food, shelterChristianity grew; organization became more complexDeepening FaithCeremonies developed to inspire people’s faith, make them feel closer to JesusOne ceremony was EucharistCeremoniesDuring Eucharist, people eat bread, drink wine in memory of Jesus’s death, resurrectionWith baptism, people are admitted to the faith
70Expansion of the Church By about 100, priests who were trained in these ceremonies became prominent within Christianity. The authority of the priests was based on the authority Jesus gave the Apostles. This spiritual authority distinguished the priests from the general congregation of the church.Church expanded, developed administrative structureBishop oversaw church affairs, had authority over other priests300s, heads of oldest congregations, patriarchs, had authority over other bishopsAdministrative StructureMany believed Peter founded Roman Church, was first bishopLater bishops of Rome, popes, Peter’s spiritual heirsGospel of Matthew: Jesus gives Peter keys to kingdom of heavenTherefore future popes inherit keysPeter the ApostlePatriarchs did not recognize the popes’ supremacy claims at first, but over time popes gained more influence within the Christian Church.
71How did the Christian Church change as it grew? SummarizeHow did the Christian Church change as it grew?Answer(s): Special ceremonies and rituals developed; priests became a special class within Christianity; bishops had authority over priests; the bishop of Rome became a pope.
72The Fall of Rome Preview Main Idea / Reading Focus The Empire Weakens Attempts at ReformInvasion and FallMap: Division and Invasion of the Roman EmpireQuick Facts: Causes and Effects of the Fall of RomeVisual Study Guide / Quick FactsVideo: The Impact of Ancient Rome on the World Today
73The Fall of Rome Main Idea Reading Focus Events and conditions inside as well as outside the Roman Empire weakened it and led to its collapse in the west in the 400s.Reading FocusWhat problems weakened the empire in the 200s?How did Diocletian and Constantine attempt to reform the empire?What caused the invasion and ultimate fall of the empire in the 400s?
74Military Dictatorship The Empire WeakensThe Roman army’s inability to stop the Huns was one symptom of the weakness that befell the empire after the end of the Pax Romana.After 180, empire confronted by challenges from outside, growing problems withinWhen last of Good Emperors died, Rome had no strong leaderCivil wars broke outRome under increasing threat of invasions on eastern, western frontiersWeak LeadersEmperors increased size of Rome’s armyDemands on financial resources, military caused economic crisisEmpire: military dictatorshipLegions deposed emperors, elevated own leaders to throneTwenty emperors in 49 years; all but one died violentlyMilitary Dictatorship
75Economic Troubles Inflation Insecurity of civil wars, invasions affected Roman lifeRobbery, piracy increased; travel hazardousMerchants feared to ship goodsMilitary needs required more revenue; emperors raised taxesInflationValue of money declined as taxes roseEmperors minted new coins with copper, lead, and silverPeople refused to accept currency at face valueResult was dramatic rise in prices, or inflation
76What problems faced Rome in the late 200s? AnalyzeWhat problems faced Rome in the late 200s?Answer(s): The empire had weak leaders, civil wars, threats of invasion, and inflation led to a weak economy. Piracy and robbery made travel hazardous.
77Attempts at ReformThe crises of the 200s shattered the Roman world. Drastic reforms had to be made if the empire were to survive. Two capable emperors rose to power and gave the empire another two centuries of life.Diocletian took power, 284Changed empire into absolute monarchyPlaced self above subjects, ruled with no accountability to anyoneDiocletianDivided empire in two to improve efficiencyRuled eastern half himself, appointed co-emperor to rule western provincesCaesars helped run empireDivided EmpireForced society into rigid orderSons to follow trades, social positions of fathersPeasants tied to land they farmedIncreased army, full attention to defenseRigid Order
78Imperial economy came under state direction with Diocletian Economic ReformsImperial economy came under state direction with DiocletianCommercial, manufacturing activities geared toward needs of imperial defenseNew tax system raised more money for government, armyReforms drastic, successfulSaved empire from immediate economic collapse
79Constantine Diocletian Retires State Control Diocletian’s initiatives worked well while he remained emperorDiocletian, co-emperor retired, 305; two caesars rose to become co-emperorsNew emperors quarreled; empire plunged into civil war312, order restored when Constantine declared emperor by his troops; put end to fightingDiocletian RetiresConstantine continued state control over societyMade two profound decisions to affect direction of future empire: converted to Christianity; built new capital—Constantinople, “city of Constantine”—on site of village of ByzantiumEastern half of empire richer, better defended; Constantine wanted capital thereState Control
80How did Diocletian and Constantine try to save Rome? AnalyzeHow did Diocletian and Constantine try to save Rome?Answer(s): Diocletian—tried to make governmental and economic reforms and build up the army; Constantine—moved capital to the eastern half of the empire
81Invasion and FallUnfortunately, the reforms of Diocletian and Constantine did not solve the overwhelming problems of the empire. During the 300s and 400s, these problems were only worsened by tribal peoples’ increasing pressures on the empire’s frontier.Germanic tribes lived along, raided Rome’s frontiers for centuriesNew peoples moved west from Central Asia, pushed Germanic tribes into empireRulers in Rome, Constantinople tried to hold empire togetherThe InvadersLate 300s, Huns stormed out of east and sent Germanic tribes fleeingImperial defenses in east held, but those in west overwhelmedHuns formed vast empire among nomadic steppe peoples of EurasiaHunsAbout 370 Huns attacked the Ostrogoths, a Germanic people living north of the Black Sea.
82Migrating Tribes Goths Vandals Attila Assault on Ostrogoths frightened kinsmen, VisigothsVisigoths fled into Roman Empire, ItalyVisigoths captured and sacked Rome itself, 410VandalsOther migrating tribes soon attacked Roman EmpireInfamous for destroying everything in path; Vandals attacked Rome in 450sTerm vandal came to mean “one who causes senseless destruction”AttilaLeader of Huns, led attack on GaulRoman army allied with Visigoths, defeated Huns, 451Attila next turned on Rome; but Pope Leo I persuaded him to leave Italy
84Fall of the West Western Empire Despite Huns’ withdrawal, Western Empire in shamblesGermanic tribes ruled most of western provinces, including ItalyOstrogoths overthrew last emperorMany historians consider this the end of the Western Roman EmpireEastern EmpireDespite western collapse, Eastern Empire endured for several centuriesPeople of Eastern Empire always thought of selves as RomansOver time other influences, especially Greek, crept into cultureAs a result of these influences, historians refer to the later period of the Eastern Empire by a new name, the Byzantine Empire.
86Identify Cause and Effect How did invaders contribute to Rome’s fall?Answer(s): The invasion of tribes from Central Asia caused Germanic tribes to flee into the Empire, where resistance had been weakened.