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Migrations: Why, Where, and the Impact of the Movement of Peoples

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1 Migrations: Why, Where, and the Impact of the Movement of Peoples


3 Reasons for Migration Push Factors Pull Factors
Negative conditions at home Real conditions Perceived conditions Impel the decision to migrate Pull Factors Positive attributes in destination Real opportunities Perceived opportunities Pull the immigrant to move

4 Push Factors Pull Factors Not enough jobs Few opportunities
"Primitive" conditions Political fear Not being able to practice religion Poor medical care Loss of wealth Natural disasters Death threats Slavery Pollution Poor housing Landlords Poor chances of finding courtship War conditions in area Pull Factors Job opportunities Better living conditions Political and/or religious freedom Enjoyment Education Better medical care Security Family links Better chances of finding courtship Get rich easily

5 Laws of Migration Economic factors are main cause Counter-migration
Lose of job or job opportunities Better pasture, farm land; more pay Counter-migration Every migration flow generates return migration Many people go abroad to work, study temporarily Majority of migrants move short distance Urbanization is the most common Moving for a job locally is another Urbanization Migrants moving long distances choose big-city destinations In 19th, 20th century the number one fact of migration Urban residents less migratory than rural residents Cities offer too many opportunities and benefits If one immigrates, one tends to go urban to urban not to rural The youth migrate Families less likely to make international moves than young adults Rare to see whole family migration

6 Different Scales Inter-continental migrations
African Slave Trades Irish Diaspora Indentured labor from Asia to Africa, Asia, Pacific Intra-continental migrations Indo-European Migration Bantu Migrations Hunnic Migrations Peopling of Americas and Globe Inter-regional migrations Guest workers going to Europe Illegal migrant workers to the USA Rural to urban migration Urbanization is an example Local residential shifts Suburbanization Neighborhood relocations

7 Motives of Migration Innovative move Conservative move
Migrant undertakes new way of life Willing to change life styles Willing to give up old traditions 19th c. immigration to Americas Conservative move Preserves accustomed way of life Simply changes location Puritan migration to New England Malayo-Polynesian migration out of China

8 Types of Migration Home Community Colonization
Movement from one place to another within their community Most common form of migration Distance measure in yards and miles Associated with youth leaving home, jobs, marriage Examples include matri- and patrilocal, as well as modern USA Colonization People leaves older community to establish a new one in another place Desire is to create an exact replica of an existing culture elsewhere Greek, Phoenician, Early Modern European colonization are examples Whole-Community or Mass Migration An entire community migrates to a new land Often migration in response to environmental conditions Nomadic migration including seasonal migration for flocks Can also include mass migration to avoid war or forced migration Generally a low level of community development Examples include the Germanic Migration, Irish Diaspora Cross-Community Involves groups/individuals migrating to live within another community Such communities settle amongst others but do not assimilate Examples include migrant workers, students in foreign universities Picks up ideas, technology, skills spreading them back to mother country Often considered free migration to seek temporary job, education Examples include Jewish, Nestorian and Chinese immigration

9 Patterns of migration Step migration Chain migration
Series of small, less extreme locational changes Bantu, Hunnic, Polynesian migration examples People move to one location, stay for a while For some reason, migrate again to another location Chain migration Established linkage or chain From point of origin to destination Former Migrants assist latest migrants Chinese, Hindu labor migration of 19th, 20th centuries Jewish, Armenian diasporas similar Migration Fields Areas that dominate a locale's in- and out-migration patterns

10 Limitations on Migration
Political restrictions Many countries have restrictions Some have entry quotas Some have exit requirements Geographical restrictions Distance and transport Physical barriers to movement Opportunities of Costs What do I gain, what do I lose Personal characteristics

11 Genographic Project DNA studies suggest
All humans come from group of African ancestors who began moving about 60,000 years ago Project to chart new knowledge on migratory history of human species through 2010 Led by National Geographic and IBM with cutting-edge genetic/computational technologies Components of project Gather field research data from indigenous and traditional peoples Invite general public to join Use proceeds to further field research and support indigenous conservation and revitalization projects Project is anonymous, non-medical, non-political, non-profit and non-commercial and all results will be placed in public domain following scientific peer publication


13 How To Teach Migration Assign Readings Lecture Guided Practice
Use classroom text and assign sections on migrations Reinforce with readings from the College Board and Professional Sources including primary sources Provide charts to organize information Lecture Teach the background of migration Cover a few important examples of migration Guided Practice Work with students to compare/contrast migration Independent Study Assign students different migrations to research Present study to class – students take notes

14 Migrations To Teach Which ones to teach Examples
Any migration mentioned in CB Guide Why: many books do not do them justice Examples Spread of Pre-Historic Humans Indo-European in Eurasia Bantu Peoples in Africa Later Steppe Peoples: Xiong-nu, Turks, Mongols The Malayo-Polynesian Movements Jewish Diaspora (totally left out of most books) Germans and Vikings

15 Migrations To Research
Semitic Migrations: Hebrew, Arabs, etc. Mediterranean Seafarers: Sea Peoples, Greeks, Phoenicians The Celts 9th Century Migrations: Arab, Viking, Magyar The Slavic Migrations Drang Nach Osten: German Colonization of the Baltic The Turks The Pre-Historic Peopling of the Americas Manifest Destinies: US to the West, Russians in Siberia, Boer Great Trek Chinese Settlement of the Interior Mfekane in Southern Africa Relocations of the American Indians European Colonization of the Americas Chinese, Indian Debt Labor Movements of the 19th, 20th century 19th, 20th century Immigration to the Americas

16 Create a Chart: Apply the 5 Themes of Geography to Migration
Location Characteristics of Place Movement Human Environment Interaction Region Select one immigrant group and apply the Five Themes of Geography as a paradigm of analysis Identify place of origins of immigrants and places to which they migrated; include any intermediate locations of re-immigration Identify cultural characteristics of migratory groups Identify push and pull factors which influenced immigrant movement; identify types of movement and patterns to immigration Identify the interactions between the immigrants and locations to which they moved as well as the impact of the immigrants on their new homes Describe limitations on immigration both in their places of origins and their places of migration

17 Create a Chart: Apply SCRIPTED to Migration
SOCIAL CULTURAL RELIGIOUS INTERACTIONS Describe social patterns of gender and hierarchy within the migrant community Identify cultural institutions of the migrant community and their contributions to their new homes Identify religious and intellectual trends of the immigrant community Describe any interactions produced by movement of the group including trade, disease, exchanges and war POLITICAL TECHNOLOGICAL ECONOMIC DEMOGRAPHIC ENVIRONMENT Describe politcial structures and reactions to the immigrant communities Identify and describe technological aspects associated with immigration Describe factors helping and hindering immigration Identify demographic factors related to immigration and the impact of immigration on regions

18 Create a Chart: Compare and Contrast Migrations
First Migration Second Migration Identify Similarities and Differences Analyze reasons for similarities and differences Reasons and Causes of Immigration Destinations of Migration Interactions between migrant groups and groups in region

19 Pre-Historic Migration Out of Africa: The Peopling of the World
c. 2 million BCE To 15,000 BCE

20 Humans Spread Across Globe
Hominids Arose in Africa 1-2 million years ago Migrated throughout Eurasia Homo-Sapiens As a species arose c. 300,000 years ago Arose in East Africa, The Horn of Africa Hunter-Gatherer Society Nomads followed game, gathered seeds Conduits across Strait of Gibraltar, Sinai Southwest Asia reached c. 70,000 BCE East Asia reached c. 60,000 BCE Australia reached c. 50,000 BCE Europe reached c. 40,000 BCE North America reached c. 20,000 BCE South America reached c. 15,000 to c. 12,000 BCE All Pacific Islands not reached until c CE Proof We use DNA, genetic drift, chromosomes, archaeology as proof We look at languages and linguistics

21 Out of Africa Migration

22 Out of Africa Migration

23 Migration of Homo Sapiens

24 Human Fossil Record

Up and Down the Nile, Out from the Deserts

26 Late Paleolithic Africa
The Sahara as a Factor Late Paleolithic Sahara End of glacial period produced rain Split Saharan into North, South Northern Sahara Was a desert Largely uninhabited Southern Sahara Tropical monsoons much stronger Tropical savannah, several very large lakes During Early Neolithic Era Zone stretched from Atlantic to Nile River Domesticated animals with pastoral societies Some plants, early agriculture along Nile Megalithic architecture and rock art Dramatic Climate Change Drastic climate change Southern Sahara began to dry up People migrated out By 3500 BCE had become a large impassable barrier Migration Routes South towards West Africa Southeast towards Central Africa East towards Nile River

27 North & Northwest Africa
Paleolithic Peoples Afro-Asiatic Caucasian “race” Two major sub-groups Semitic, Hamitic Locations Along Southern Mediterranean Down Red Sea to Ethiopia Also in Horn of Africa “Hamitic” Berbers and Tuaregs Ancient Libyans Mauretanians Numidians Garamantes Egyptians Cushitic (Kush-Meroe) Oromo, Amhara, Tigreans (Ethiopians) Somali Migrations During Historical Period Largely Semitic Arabs from Arabia Probably also Hyksos Jews from Fertile Crescent Axumites from Southern Arabian mixed with Cushites Made possible by introduction of horses, camels into Africa

28 Migrations along Nile Lower Nile Separate Paths Upper Nile
Prehistoric migrations Egyptians (Afro-Asiatic) from North up the Nile Proto-Kushite (Negroid) from South up the Nile Berber, Nilotic pastoral nomads from Deserts towards Nile Historic Egypt controlled Upper and Lower Nile Old, Middle Kingdoms united Upper, Lower Egypt No distinction in early Egyptian history between different peoples Separate Paths The Semitic Hyksos created the division, separation 1720 BCE overran Egypt, severing contact with Kush Separate Black Egyptian state, culture developed at Kermah New Kingdom re-incorporated area in empire By 1200 BCE New Kingdom lost control of Kush Egyptians lost control of region for 500 years Upper Nile Early Kushites Called Nubians and Kushites by Egyptians Saharan-Nilotic peoples indigenous to Upper Nile for 10,000 years Totally immersed in Egyptian culture; Kushite language disappeared But had moon worship, a Nilo-Saharan cultural trait Powerful, militaristic Kush State Around 750 BCE conquered Egypt: capital around Napata Withdrew from Egypt in face of Assyrian invasions New Kushite state moved capital to Meroe Tributary to Persians, Greeks, Romans Nomadic Nobatae, Nuba, Beja moved into state forming military aristocracy Romans used state to counterbalance movement of Ethiopians towards Nile 350 CE: Axumites conquer Kush, destroy state Separate Nubian states arise, convert to Christianity

29 Migrations in the Horn Many Unknowns Where did Axum come from?
Earliest people Afro-Asiatic people called Cushites Nearest Relatives: Egyptians, Berbers Distant Relatives: Arabs, Jews, Sabeans Skin color is a light to dark reddish brown Modern Descendents Ethiopians, Tigreans, Amhara Somali, Oromo Eritreans Nilo-Saharans Migrated into the area very early and settled early along Nile Also migrated toward Ethiopian highlands Kush-Meroe, Nubians were black Nilo-Saharans Color of skin much darker, black Intermarried with Cushites pushing down from highlands Language, Haplogroup are best guides not race, skin color Contain both Semitic, Nilo-Saharan words Axumite Geez related to Southern Arabian Script Merotic writing related to Egyptian demotic, hieratic Haplogroup of E1b1b is predominant among Afro-Asiatics Differences come later with Christianity, Islam Where did Axum come from? Some historians feel Southern Arabians founded Axum Recent evidence indicates an indigenous development But no question Yemenite Arabs, Jews had influence And intermarriage with Nilotics is genetically evident Genome: 62% Caucasian, 24% Sub-Saharan, 8% Austro-Melanesian, 6% East Asian!

30 Ancient and Classical Movements In Africa
Human Migration in Classical Africa Ancient and Classical Movements In Africa Cattle Migration In Africa

31 Early Desert Trade Early Trade The Camel Ancient Egypt Desert Routes
Trade up and down Nile Gold, spices, animals, wheat, slaves Desert Routes Dar el-Arbain from desert along river Ghadames: Niger (Gao) north to Tripoli Garamantean: Central Sahara across Haggar Mts. Walata Road: From Senegal along Atlas to Morocco The Garamantes Both Greeks, Phoenicians record their presence c. 500 BCE A Berber Saharan tribe, pastoral nomads Developed a thriving trading state until 5th century CE Developed extensive irrigation system Controlled trade between Sahara, Mediterranean Coast Constant conflict constantly with Romans Increasing desertification destroyed their land, dried up water The Camel Introduced by Romans c. 200 CE to patrol desert borders Berbers acquired camels, used for deep desert trade Camels made travel across desert possible

32 The Berber Garamantes

33 Was the Desert a barrier?

34 “The Government Would Like You To Move to This New Place”
Historical Colonial Movements of Peoples

35 What is colonization? Definition Types
Extension of sovereign control over neighboring territory Colonialism: The physical settlement of your people abroad Imperialism: Control land to exploit resources but no settlement National populations resettled onto conquered lands Indigenous populations displaced, assimilated, eliminated Local labor resources controlled, markets exploited New socio-economic, linguistic, religious, culture introduced Types Settler Colonies – Some Examples Phoencians, Greeks, and Romans Arabs, Turks, Mongols, and Ottomans Malayo-Polynesians Bantu and Berbers in Africa Chinese in Western lands, Germans in Eastern lands English in Ireland Dependencies Lands under control of a foreign state but not settled by its people

36 Phoenicians & Carthaginians
Original Home of Phoenicians c BCE Coast of Eastern Mediterranean near Lebanon Mountainous area with little arable soil Interior controlled by powerful states Cities arose on the coast oriented outward Movement Trade began to obtain needed materials Sufficient trees provide materials to build boats Phoenicians became sailors and maritime experts Acquire raw materials and make finished goods for trade Famous for cloth, purple dye, metallurgy Overpopulation Excess population immigrates to establish new settlements Phoenicians settle Cyprus, southern coasts of Western Mediterranean Rivalry with Greeks for Mediterranean Sea, trade, settlement Carthaginian Empire, c. 600 to 200 BCE Arose as original homeland fell under various empires Settles Western Sicily, Sardinia, Baleric Islands, Southern Spain Exploits rich crop lands for wine, olives Discovers rich silver vines, ships trade for tin with southern England Battled Etrsucans, Kelts, Greeks and Romans for Western Mediterranean Conquered by Rome

37 Punic Trade & Colonization

38 As Greeks Minoans and Mycenaean Maritime Civilization arose on Crete
New archaeological evidence indicates Indo-Iranian origins Established colonies throughout Aegean Sea Traded with Phoenicians and Egyptians Land-Based Mycenaeans Bronze Age Indo-Europeans migrated into Peloponnesus Contemporaneous to Minoans with whom traded, warred Many settlements in Aegean Islands, Asia Minor Dark Age Migrations of the Greeks c BCE new tribes (Dorians) pushed into region Followed later by Attics, Aeolians, Achaeans, others Established numerous independent city-states Early Greece 750 BCE Greece stabilized and population began to grow Land could not support excess population Greeks began tradition of sending excess populations to sister colonies Many of these colonies achieved independence, rose to prominence Spread culture, crops, religion, traditions, language across Mediterranean

39 Greek World

40 Greek Thassalocracies
Maritime Poleis Several poleis established many overseas dependencies Sister colonies retained strong connections to mother polis Included Athens, Corinth, Megara, Phocea Classical Greece was geographically wide-spread Greece Proper and islands of the Aegean including Asia Minor, Cyprus Eastern Sicily and Southern Italian coasts, harbors Ports, settlements along all coasts of the Black Sea Ports, harbors, islands in Spain, France, Northern Italy, Libya Larger Thassalocracies Athenian Empire came to dominate Aegean, Black Seas Arose after war with Persia Delian League against Persia forcibly turned into an Athenian Empire Athens controlled Dardanelles, most islands of Aegean Corinth was a major rival of Athens in Ionian, Adriatic Seas Syracuse (Sicily) rose to power and controlled much of Southern Italy Result: Greeks settled throughout Mediterranean, neighboring seas

41 The Hellenistic World Alexander’s World
He founds Greek cities as his armies advance Greek administrators, soldiers, merchants migrate in wake Greek ruled states arose within his failed empire Successor Hellenistic Monarchies Greek cities throughout their states Greek predominate language of area Greeks formed elite settler society

42 From Etruscans to Romans
The Etruscans Elite aristocracy migrated from Asia Minor Established city-states thoughout Tuscany Etruscan colonies on Corsica, Sardinia, Po Valley, Campana Roman Republic to Roman Empire 753 – 509 BCE: Etruscan Kingdom – Rome founded as Etruscan colony Roman patricians overthrow Etruscans, establish republic, expand Rome expanded to control Latium, other Latin tribes, later Italy Extended Roman rights to many conquered peoples “Coloniae civium Romanorum” Settled Roman with full rights, citizenship; acted as governors of territories Tended to be small with 300 Roman families Latin Colonies Settlements of Romans, Latin allies in colonies with partial rights Military colonies designed to control, maintain empire After 133 BCE New Roman colonies are transplantations of poor, landless Roman population Settled as agricultural colonies to give poor, ex-farmers new land Often settled in territories outside of Italy Imperial colonies Tradition started by Julius Caesar and continued by later emperors Legionnaires paid off upon retirement by establishing colonies in empire

43 Roman Colonia First Roman Colonies Colonia spread Latin culture, language and were usually located at critical geographic sites that later became major cities.

44 The Vandal Migration Later State Into Africa
The Volkerwanderung 400 CE Entered Roman territory Many embraced Christianity Few were Roman Catholics Most followed Arian Christianity Crossed into Gaul Battled the Franks, forced Vandals to move into Iberia Crossed into region as Roman feoderati Settled Galicia, Western, Southern areas Into Africa Crossed Strait of Gibraltar to use it as a base 439 CE conquered Carthage, made it capital Settled area around modern Tunis, Eastern Algeria Conquered Sardinia, Sicily, Corsica; sacked Rome 455 Created a powerful state Later State Suffered conflicts between Catholics, Arians Byzantines invaded, conquered area in 534

45 Mapping Vandal Movement

46 Out of Nigeria, Movement in the South
THE BANTU MIGRATIONS Out of Nigeria, Movement in the South


48 The Early Bantus The Bantu peoples Bantu agriculture and herding
Originated in the region around modern Nigeria/Cameroon Influenced by Nok iron making, herding, agriculture Population pressure drove migrations, 2000 BCE – 700 BCE Two major movements: to south and to east and then south Languages split into about 500 distinct but related tongues Bantu agriculture and herding Early Bantu relied on agriculture – slash-burn, shifting Pastoralists, semi-nomadic due to agriculture, cattle Iron metallurgy Iron appeared during the 7th and 6th centuries B.C.E. Iron made agriculture more productive Expanded divisions of labor, specialization in societies Population Pressures Iron technologies produced population upsurge Large populations forced migration of Bantu


50 Movement Spreads Other Items
The Bantu Migration Population pressure led to migration, c B.C.E. Movement to South, along Southeast and Southwest coasts Languages differentiated into about 500 distinct but related tongues Occupied most of sub-Saharan (except West) Africa by 1000 C.E. Split into groups as they migrated: Eastern, Central, Southern Bantu spread iron, herding technologies as they moved Bananas Between 300/500 C.E., Malay seafarers reached Africa Settled in Madagascar, visited East African coast Brought with them pigs, taro, and banana cultivation Bananas became well-established in Africa by 500 C.E. Bantu learned to cultivate bananas from Malagasy Bananas caused second population spurt, migration surge Reached South Africa in 16th century CE

51 Using Language and Dialect to Trace Movement

52 Impact of Migration Movement Produces Interactions
Geographic Diversity Creates Social Diversity Extended families and clans as social and economic organizations A group of villages constituted a district but separated by distance Communities claimed rights to land, no private property Language, social differences arose based on geography Movement Produces Interactions Exchange of ideas and goods especially flora, fauna, technology Exchange of DNA: rise of syncretic societies War and Trade between societies Stateless societies Early Bantu societies did not depend on elaborate bureaucracy Societies governed through family and kinship groups Chief of a village was from the most prominent family heads Villages chiefs negotiated inter-village affairs Chiefdoms Population growth strained resources, increased conflict Some communities began to organize military forces, 1000 C.E. Powerful chiefs overrode kinship networks and imposed authority Some chiefs conquered their neighbors

53 The Migration of the Arabs
640 – 1500 CE

54 What is an Arab? The Problem The Arabs are Semites Who is an “Arab”?
“Arab” is an ambiguous, confusing term Usually means a speaker of Arabic This is a recent historical development The Arabs are Semites Historical Semites include sedentary, nomadic peoples Phoenicians, Hyksos, Arameans, Edomites, Moabites, Canaanites Akkadians, Assyrians, Babylonians Related to the Hamites of Egypt, Yemen, Ethiopia Originally the Bedouin tribes of Arabia, Yemen Who is an “Arab”? Genealogical (Genes, DNA) The smallest of group within Arabs Descendents of the Bedouin tribes of Arabian and Syrian Deserts Ibn Khaldun defined this group as solely those tracing origin to these Bedouin tribes Linguistic A speaker whose first language is Arabic A very large group due to Islam, c. 250 million people May be a linguistic Arab without being a genealogical Arab Political and Cultural Islam furthered the spread of Arabic to genealogical non-Arabs A cosmopolitan culture originally created by the Arab Empire Is both the ethnic culture of the Arabs and those citizens of a state which speaks Arabic Many genealogical non-Arabs are culturally Arabs Many reject being called Arabs unless they also speak Arabic

55 Early History Arabs and the Arabic Language
Pre-date the CE developments of Islam Originated in the Arabian Peninsula The Bedouin Desert dwelling nomadic organized by tribes Dwelt in Hejaz and the interior of Arabia Many Bedouin had settled in towns and become semi-urbanized Towns in Yathrib (Medina) and Mecca The Nabateans Nomadic migrants to Levant who became urbanized Originally spoke Aramaic but switched to Arabic Nabatean alphabet adopted by Southern Arabs and pre-Classic Arabic Arabia Petrapolis was an flowering of an early commercial Arabic culture Spread in Southwest Asia beginning c. 200 CE Jewish Arabs Arabs who had become Jews by conversion or conquest Edomites and The Idumaean Dynasty of Judah King Herod is the prime example Many Arabs in Levant had become strongly Hellenized Arab Christians Ghassanids, Lakhmids, Banu Judham Settled Levant (Modern Jordan, Southern Israel, Sinai) and Northern Arabian Desert Ghassanids settled Syrian Desert as clients of the Roman Empire Lakhmids settled desert opposite Mesopotamia as clients of the Sassanid Empire Kindites, Himyarites of Yemen ruled northern, central Arabia and the Persian Gulf coast Zenobia of Palmyra was in all likelihood related to the Arabs Religiously heavily influenced by Monophysite and Nestorian Christianity

56 The Tribal Map of Arabia

57 Early Migration Primitive Migration Early Commerce
Nomadic Pastoralism Move with flocks seeking grazing land, water Winter, Summer Pasture lands Re: Abraham in the Old Testament Movement between desert, first cities Often involving raid, trade Some intermarriage Constant clan warfare scattered tribes Early Commerce Rise of sedentary settlements on oases Fertile areas with irrigation in Yemen Cities develop trading connections Gold, frankincense, myrrh, manufactured items Trade connects Western Arabia to Levant Early Religious Movement Mecca develops as a site of polytheistic religious pilgrimage Jewish diaspora reached area: a Jewish tribe in Medina area Monophysite Christians moved to area to avoid persecution Early Colonization Himyarites expanded towards Persian Gulf Sabeans who were probably Himyarites expanded into Horn of Africa Axum was clearly a Semitic civilization originally connected to Southern Arabia

58 The Early Arab World

59 Early Islam Develops Arabic Identity
Early Islamic Period Muslims of Medina called nomadic tribes of deserts “A’raab” Considered themselves sedentary but were aware of close racial bonds Assyrians used same construct to describe their relationship to the nomads The Quran Does not use the word “Arab” in a manner we would understand “Arabiy” is the language “Arab” means Bedouin and is negative Quran Uses the term “Arabic” and “clear” to mean “by the clear book” “We have made it an Arabic recitation in order that you may understand.” The Quran was regarded as the prime example of al-arabiyya The term “Arab” Refers to Bedouin tribes of the desert who resisted Muhammad “The Bedouin are the worst in disbelief and hypocrisy.” c. 800 CE: After Conquests of Islam Language of the nomadic Arabs Regarded as most pure by grammarians Denotes uncontaminated language of Bedouins

60 Early Conquests Muhammad and Islam unites the Arab Tribes
Muslims must read the Quran in Arabic All Muslims pray in Arabic Levant and Irag Arabs flooded into as part of early conquests of Islam 661 CE: Ummayad Caliphs move capital to Damascus Arabs compromise ruling military elite Established garrison towns Ramla, ar-Raggah, Basra, Kufa, Mosul, Samarra All eventually became major non-military cities Enjoyed special privileges Proud of Arab ancestry, sponsored poetry, culture of pre-Islamic Arabia Intermarried with local women, children raised within Arab culture Abd al-Malik established Arabic as the Caliphate's official language in 686. Reform greatly influenced the conquered non-Arab peoples Fueled the Arabization of the region. Tensions lead to a new Dynasty Arabs had a higher status among non-Arab Muslim converts Converts still had obligation to pay heavy taxes caused resentment. Caliph Umar II demanded that all Muslims be treated as equals but nothing happened Discontent swept the region and a bloody uprising occurred Abbasids came to power Moved capital to newly constructed city of Baghdad Abbasids were also Arabs and descendants of Muhammad's uncle Abbas Abbasids had the support of non-Arab Islamic groups. Islam and Arabic as the language of administration The Levantine and Iraqi populations were eventually Arabized. North Africa and the Iberian Peninsula In 8th Century, Arabic armies conquered the region Arab Muslims settled the old Roman, Vandal, Carthaginian towns Berbers remained dominant inland

61 The Arab Islamic Empire

62 Later Migration Military Conquest Muslim Pilgrimage
Whole tribes mobilized to conquer Arabia; pushed into Persia, Byzantines Arabs settled as garrison units on desert, arable land borders Whole garrison towns constructed to administer empire Whole tribes resettled to maintain military control Muslim Pilgrimage One of the Five Pillars of Islam Originally was to be a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, replaced by Mecca All Muslims must try at least once in life to make journey to Mecca Shia-Sunni Split Shia developed holy sites of dead martyrs and saints Faithful made regular pilgrimages to venerate heroes The Hajji and the Gadis Learned Muslims often traveled between cities teaching, dispensing justice Itinerant preachers, wanders such as gadis (judges) and sufis (mystics) Commerce and Intellectual Migration Arab Empire encouraged commerce, trade Empire becomes one long linked trade route of exchanges Arabs become trade diaspora at first but intermarry spreading Arab culture, language Arab Centers of Learning in Major Cities Islam encouraged intellectual pursuits, caliphs built schools and libraries Centers of Learning in Cordoba, Cairo, Damascus, Baghdad attracted travelers Bedouin Migration Overcrowding of Arabia, constant warfare led Arab Bedouin tribes (Banu) to migrate Sahara, Libyan and Central Asian deserts witness migrations

63 Tribal Migration Arab Colonization was similar to Roman establishment of military colonia Banu Umayya of Damascus in the Levant & North Africa, 661AD Umayyid Caliphs from Umayya tribe were the first Arab force to conquer the North African region Most of the tribe settled in Damascus (The Levant) at this time and not in North Africa After their removal by the Abbasid Caliphs, they migrated to Spain Formed a majority of the Arabs in Iberia and a sizeable minority of Arabs in Maghreb Banu Fahr in North Africa, 670AD Banu Fahr subdued the Berbers in the mountain region of modern day Algeria. Banu Fahr built the cities of Qayrawan in modern Tunisia and Uqbah ibn Naafi' in modern Algeria Banu Hashim (Idrisids) in North Africa, 788AD Idris I of the Banu Hashim quarrelled with the Abbasids and fled Egypt for the Maghreb With Berber support established the Idrisid dynasty located in modern day Morocco and Algeria Banu Umayya of Andalus/Cordoba in North Africa, 1031AD Umayyad Caliphate in Cordoba collapsed, under assault by Castile, Aragon, Portugal The Banu Umayya clan then fled with the rest of the Muslims to the Maghreb region. Banu Hilal and Banu Muqal (Banu Hashim) in North Africa, 1046AD Banu Hilal was a populous Arab tribal confederation organized by the Fatimids in Libya Warred with the Zenata Berbers (a clan that claimed Yemeni ancestry from pre-Islamic periods) Warred with the Sanhaja Berber confederation to small coastal towns. Banu Hilal, Banu Muqal, Banu Jashm, other tribes eventually settled in Morocco and Algeria Banu Sulaym in North Africa, 1049AD Banu Sulyam was a Bedouin tribal confederation from Nejd (Arabia) Allied with the Banu Hilal, helped defeat the Zirids in 1052 CE; took Kairuan in 1057 CE. Banu Sulaym mainly settled and completely Arabized Libya Banu Kanz Nubia/Sudan, 11th-14th century Branch of the Rabi'ah tribe settled in north Sudan; Slowly Arabized states in Northern Sudan Banu Kanz chieftain inherited the kingdom of Makurina and began Arabization of the Sudan Completed by the arrival of the Ja’Alin and Arab tribes. Banu Hassan Mauritania AD Banu Maqil is a Yemeni nomadic tribe that settled in Tunisia in the 13th century Banu Hassan of the Magil moved into the Sanhaja region in Western Sahara and Mauritania Allied to the Latuma Arabized Berbers and Arabized Mauritania

64 And Egypt? The Problem The Reality The Post-Classical History
Egypt is the largest Arabic speaking country in the world Its population accounts for almost 50% of Arabic first language users Is it Arab? Egyptians say no - most Arabs and Muslims think it is The Reality Genealogically Egyptians are not Arabs: they are Hamites descended of Copts Many Egyptians have Arab blood especially in the cities but also Greek, Nubian, African The country-side population still has the reddish complexion of the Hamite Linguistically Egyptians speak an Arabic heavily laced with older Coptic words, constructs, idioms Politically and Culturally Egypt is at the center of modern Pan-Arab Nationalism: name of Arab Republic of Egypt Egypt has been heavily influenced by other cultures: European, Arab, African The Post-Classical History 639 CE: Arabs conquer Egypt from Byzantines Egyptians were largely Monophysite Christians Coptic Christians were heavily persecuted by the Byzantines and seek Muslim protection Arabs establish military garrisons at Fustat (al Cairo) Many Egyptians began to convert to Sunni Islam for economic, political reasons Muslim Egypt was ruled by outsiders Fatimid Dynasty (Shia Dynasty descendent from Muhammad’s daughter Fatima Ayyubid Sultans: Kurdish sultans of the Abbasid Caliphs Mameluks: Circassian-Turkish slave soldiers loyal first to Abbasids and later independent Distinguish between the settled farming lands of the Nile and the deserts The Bedouin migrated into the desert regions but did not settle the Nile lands Often came for economic reasons and used by Arabs to police border regions

65 The Arab World

66 Classical Through Contemporary Eras
TRADE DIASPORAS Classical Through Contemporary Eras

67 Philip Curtin’s Trade Diaspora
“Commercial specialists would remove themselves physically from the home community and go to live as aliens in another town, usually not a fringe town, but a town important in the life of the host community. There, the stranger merchants could settle down and learn the language, the customs and the commercial ways of their hosts. They could then serve as cross-cultural brokers helping and encouraging trade between the host society and people of their own origin who moved along the trade routes. At this stage, a distinction appeared between the merchants who moved and settled and those who continued to move back and forth. What might have begun as a single settlement soon became more complex. The merchants who might have begun with a single settlement abroad tended to set up a whole series of trade settlements in alien towns. The result was an interrelated net of commercial communities, forming a trade network, or trade diaspora—a term that comes from the Greek word for scattering, as in the sowing of grain.”

68 What is a Trade Diaspora?
Defined Groups of merchants living amongst aliens in associated networks Result of international trade in high valued luxuries Merchants settle in certain countries to facilitate their trade Types Stayers: Permanently settled in foreign land to facilitate trade Movers: Those merchants who move between countries carrying goods Victim Diaspora: ethnic community violently uprooted which trades to link parts Causes of Trade Diaspora Existence of competing states and political system with borders Often merchants alone could move between competing regimes Political systems protected trade diasporas as they supplied luxuries Culture of Commerce Merchants tend to think alike: maximization of profit Merchants willing to move, relocate to make a profit Merchants were from cities with a more cosmopolitan, shared culture Culture of Shared Ethnicity Merchants from same ethnic communities had contacts with others Always easier to trade with some familiar with local customs Easier still to trade with someone from your same family, culture

69 The Rise of the Swahili The eastern coast of Africa Swahili Language
Changed profoundly around first millennium CE Bantu-speaking from interior Migrated, settled along the coast Became farmers of bananas, remained herders Merchants and traders from the Muslim world, India Realized the strategic importance of the east coast of Africa Established commercial traffic, began to settle there From 900 CE onwards East Africa saw influx of Shirazi Arabs from the Persian Gulf Small settlements of Indians The Arabs called this region al-Zanj "The Blacks" Coastal areas came under control of Muslim merchants By the 1300's Major east African ports from Mombaza to Sofala Had become thoroughly Islamic cities and cultural centers Swahili Language Grew out of a mix of Arabic and Bantu languages, means “coast” Swahili is primarily a Bantu language with some Arabic elements it is written in the Arabic alphabet Today language is spreading amongst East Africa as official language

70 Swahili Trading Diaspora
Major Swahili city-states Kenya: Mombasa, Malindi, Pate Somalia: Mogadishu Tanzania: Zanzibar, Kilwa Mozambique: Sofala City-states were Muslim and cosmopolitan All politically independent of one another No Swahili empire or hegemony was formed Each vied for the lion's share of African trade Merchants moved about interior buying, selling The chief exports Ivory, sandalwood, ebony Worked closely with Zimbabwe to sell gold, copper Later included slaves, cloves These cities were culturally cosmopolitan Formed from a cultural mix of Bantu, Islamic, Indian influences Commerce brought Chinese artifacts and Persian culture Later Portuguese, English influence after 1500 Social Hierarchy Cities were run by a nobility African in origin With admixture of Persian or Arab blood Below the nobility Were commoners, resident foreigners Made up a large part of the citizenry Like other Islamic African states, slavery was actively practiced

71 Hausa People Homeland 500 CE – 700 CE
Kano, Nigeria is center of Hausa trade and culture Culturally linked to Fulani, Songhai, Mandé, Tuareg A mix of Afro-Asiatic and Nilo-Saharan groups 500 CE – 700 CE Moved west from Nubia Intermixing with local peoples Established city-states in Northern, Eastern Nigeria City-states existed as islands amongst other peoples Emerged as the power after decline of Nok, Sokoto Hausa have an ancient culture extending over a large area Strong, old ties to the Arabs, Islamized peoples in West Africa Ties extended through long distance trade Merchants moved across region from city to city Islam entered through trade but restricted to rulers, courts Hausa aristocracy adopted Islam in 11th c. CE Rural areas retained their animistic beliefs The Fulani Invaded the Hausa area in 1810 Often co-existed with the Hausa, interacted

72 The African Slave Trades
?BCE to ?CE

73 Generalized Facts About Slavery, Slave Trades
Slavery is as old as recorded human history All societies have had slaves or a system similar to it Most slaves were captured in war or sold for debts Most slaves ended up as agricultural slaves To a lesser degree slaves were domestic servants To a lesser degree slaves were soldiers, artisans The most deadly slavery was in the mines, in the galleys In most society slaves were protected to a degree by laws Motives Labor Shortages would necessitate slavery A supply would be needed Profit would have to be great to cover expenses

74 African Slavery In most African societies Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade
Little difference between the free peasants and the feudal vassal peasants Vassals of the Songhay Muslim Empire Used primarily in agriculture, paid tribute in crops, service Slavery was more an occupational caste as bondage was relative In the Kanem Bornu Empire Vassals were three classes beneath the nobles Marriage between captor and captive was far from rare, blurring the anticipated roles. Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade During the 16th century, Europe began to outpace the Arab world in the export traffic Slave traffic from Africa to the Americas was more profitable to slavers, trade shifted to coast Dutch imported slaves from Asia into South Africa, Portugal and Spain imported slaves to Americas End of slave trade, decline of slavery was imposed upon Africa by its European conquerors The nature of the slave societies differed greatly across the continent There were large plantations worked by slaves in Egypt, the Sudan and Zanzibar This was not a typical use of slaves in Africa as a whole In most African slave societies, slaves were protected and incorporated into the slave-owning family In Senegambia between 1300 and 1900 close to one-third of the population was enslaved In early Islamic states of the western Sudan Including Ghana ( ), Mali (1235–1645), Segou (1712–1861), Songhai ( ) About a third of the population were slaves In Sierra Leone in the 19th century about half of the population consisted of slaves In the 19th century at least half the population was enslaved Among the Duala of the Cameroon, Igbo and other peoples of the lower Niger The Kongo, the Kasanje kingdom and Chokwe of Angola all practiced slavery, sold slaves to Portuguese Among the Ashanti and Yoruba a third of the population consisted of slaves The population of the Kanem was about a third-slave It was perhaps 40% in Bornu (1396–1893) Between 1750 and 1900 from 1/3 to 2/3 of entire population of the Fulani jihad states consisted of slave Sokoto caliphate formed by Hausas in Nigeria, Cameroon: ½ population was slave in 19th century It is estimated that up to 90% of the population of Arab-Swahili Zanzibar was enslaved. Roughly half the population of Madagascar was enslaved

75 Foundations of the Slave Trades
Slavery common in most Mediterranean societies Muslim World Quran permitted slavery Islamic world had created two slave routes out of Africa Iberia Iberians never had serfdom because slaves were plentiful Iberians tended to enslave Muslims during their wars Iberians knew of Africans, African slaves: they had invaded Iberia Slavery common in traditional Africa Typically war captives, criminals, outcasts Most slaves worked as cultivators Some used as administrators, soldiers Were a measure of power, wealth Assimilated into masters' kinship groups Could earn freedom Children of slaves were free Islamic slave trade well established throughout Africa Slaves had been sold out of Africa long before Greeks and Romans North African to S. W. Asia Route Indian Ocean Route to S. W. Asia, Persian Gulf Europeans used these existing networks Redirected the slaves to the coast (Atlantic Route) Expanded slave trade through increased demand, high prices

76 Trans-Saharan Slave Trade Indian Ocean Slave Trade
The Arab slave trade lasted more than a millennium Ibn Battuta states that he was given , purchased slaves Arab slave trade originated with trans-Saharan slavery Arabs, Indians, Asians involved in the capture, transport of slaves Route was northward across the Sahara desert, Indian Ocean region Into Arabia and the Middle East, Persia, Central Asia and the Indian subcontinent The slave trade from East Africa to Arabia Dominated by Arab, African traders in coastal cities of East Africa Swahili wealth also due in large part to slave trade Iraq: black Zanj slaves constituted ½ total population The Moors European name for Berbers of North Africa In the 8th century began raiding coastal areas Became known as the Barbary pirates Slave trade suppressed in the 19th century Slaves included both African and Europeans Cervantes was held as a slave, later ransomed Male slaves Employed as servants, soldiers, or laborers Female slaves traded as domestic servants Historical estimates 11-17 million slaves taken Between 650 to 1900 CE British were strong abolitionists in region Slave trade continued into early 1900s Interpol evidence: it continues today

77 Slave Routes Out of Africa

78 Social Changes in Africa c. 1500
Political Changes Rise of hereditary monarchies in West Africa Rise of Warfare New outside contacts entering European (Portuguese) influence along coast Moroccan, North African influence pushing south Radicalization of Islam Rise of radical African Muslim Sahel states Rulers, religious leaders called for purified Islam Began to launch Jihad wars to purify belief American food crops Manioc, maize, peanuts, yams, melons Introduced after the sixteenth century Cultivation expanded, thrived Population growth in sub-Sahara From 35 million in 1500 To 60 million in 1800

79 Portugal and Africa Set a Pattern
Portuguese explore Africa Established factories, trading stations Portugal not powerful enough to control trade Diseases kept Europeans out of interior Had to work cooperatively with local rulers Mulattos penetrated interior for Portugal Exchanges Portugal obtained ivory, pepper, skins, gold Africans obtained manufactured goods Portugal successful because goods desired Many cultural ideas exchange, images in art C0-Dominion of Trade Dominated shipment, demand out of Africa On continent, African kings dominated trade of all types How Portugal dealt with Africans Missionary efforts, Catholicism spread; Ambassadors exchanged Portugal begins to see Africans as savages, heathens, pagans Began with Portuguese attitude towards African Muslims Slavery introduced as Africans seen only as a commodity Slaves became a primary trade commodity, Portugal became greedy Many Africans limited, attempted to limit Portuguese influence

80 Human Cargos Early slave trade on the Atlantic
Started by Portuguese in 1441 1460 about five hundred slaves/year shipped to Portugal, Spain 15TH century slaves shipped to sugar plantations on Atlantic islands American planters needed labor Indians not suited to slavery, most had died out Portuguese planters imported slaves to Brazil, 1530s Slaves to Caribbean, Mexico, Peru, Central America, s English colonists brought slaves to North America early 17TH century Triangular trade All three legs of voyage profitable In Africa, finished goods traded for slaves In Americas, slaves traded for sugar, molasses In Europe, American produce traded At every stage slave trade was brutal Individuals captured in violent raids Forced marched to the coast for transport Middle Passage and First Year Between percent died on passage Another 25 percent died first year

81 Impact of the Slave Trade on Africa
Volume of the Atlantic slave trade Increased dramatically after 1600 c ,000 shipped per year About 12 million brought to Americas Another 12 million died en route Volume of Muslim trade Ten million slaves shipped out of Africa Islamic slave trade between 8th and 19th centuries Social Impact Profound on African societies Impact uneven: some societies spared, some profited Some areas had no population growth, stagnation For generations, many leaders, intellectuals missing Distorted African sex ratios Two-thirds of exported slaves were males Polygamy encouraged, often common Forced women to take on men's duties Gender involved in trades Atlantic Route: men and women Trans-Saharan Route: men only Indian Ocean Route: women and young boys (eunuchs) Politically and economic disruption Firearms traded for slaves led to war and state formation Many states grew powerful as a slave-raiding state Fostered conflict and violence between peoples Failed to develop economics, industry, trade beyond slave trade Beginning of a process which impoverished Africa until today

82 Mapping the Height of the Atlantic Slave Trade

83 Statistics of the Atlantic Slave Trade

84 American Plantation Society
Cash crops Introduced to fertile lands of Caribbean: early 15th c. Important cash crops Caribbean Coast: Sugar, cocoa, coffee Southern States of US: Tobacco, rice, indigo, cotton Plantations dependent on slave labor Plantations racially divided 100 or more slaves with a few white supervisors Whites on top of social pyramid Free people of color Creole blacks Born in Americas of mixed parentage House slaves Saltwater slaves Directly from Africa Field slaves, mines High death rates in Caribbean, Brazil Led to continued importation of slaves Led to an expansion of the slave trade to Africa Led to an internal slave trade in some states Most slaves to Caribbean (Haiti) and Brazil Only about 5 percent of slaves to North America Less than 1% to the US Slave families more common

85 African Traditions in the Americas
Africans brought their traditions, cultures with them Often retained only their traditions Most Africans in Americas came from same region in Africa Hybrid traditions arose blending with Western traditions African and Creole languages Slaves from many tribes; lacked a common language Developed creole languages Blending several African languages With the language of the slaveholder Religions also combined different cultures African Christianity was a distinctive syncretic practice African rituals and beliefs Ritual drumming, singing Pentecostal like behaviors Animal sacrifice, magic, and sorcery Examples: Obeah, vodun, candomble Other cultural traditions Hybrid cuisine Weaving, pottery

86 End of Slave Trade and Abolition of Slavery
Resistance to slavery widespread, though dangerous Slow work, sabotage, and escape Slave revolts rare – brutally suppressed by owners 1793 Slave Rebellion in Saint-Domingue French Revolution abolished slavery Black Jacobins stage revolution, end slavocracy Resisted repeated French attempts to reconquer Established the free state of Haiti New voices and ideas against slavery Enlightenment began discussion American, French revolutions: ideals of freedom and equality Slave Journals and Narratives greatly influenced debate Slavery became increasingly costly Slave revolts made slavery expensive and dangerous Decline of sugar price, rising costs of slaves British abolished slavery, slave trade British navy patrolled Africa and arrested, hung slave traders Manufacturing industries rivaled slave industries Paid labor was cheaper and often more reliable Industry was more profitable; Africa became a market End of the Atlantic slave trade Most European states abolished slave trade in early 19th century The abolition of slavery followed slowly Many European states abolished slavery between 1790 and 1810 1833 in British colonies, 1848 in French colonies 1865 in the United States, 1888 in Brazil Trans-Saharan, East African Slave trades existed until 1880s, 1900s

87 Abolition in Africa Ethiopia The British The French
Anti-Slavery Society estimated there were 2 million slaves in the early 1930s Out of an estimated population of between 8 and 16 million Slavery continued in Ethiopia until the Italian invasion in October 1935 It was abolished by order of the Italian occupying forces Western Allies of World War II pressured Ethiopia to abolish slavery and serfdom The British In Nigeria Sokoto Caliphate and the surrounding areas in northern Nigeria Annexed at the turn of the 20th century Approximately 2 million to 2.5 million people there were slaves Slavery in northern Nigeria was finally outlawed in 1936 In the Sudan, East Africa British forced Egypt to abolish slavery in Sudan in 1870s Abolition partially led to revolt of the Mahdi in 1880s British forced Zanzibar to abolish slavery in 1890s The French French abolished Slavery in West Africa as the conquered Sahel Muslim states Less willing to abolish East African slave trade as they used slaves French Indian Ocean sugar plantations regularly used slave labor until 1910 Elikia M’bokol, April 1998, Le Monde diplomatique "The African continent was bled of its human resources via all possible routes. Across the Sahara, through the Red Sea, from the Indian Ocean ports and across the Atlantic. At least ten centuries of slavery for the benefit of the Muslim countries (from the ninth to the nineteenth)." He continues: "Four million slaves exported via the Red Sea, another four million through the Swahili ports of the Indian Ocean, perhaps as many as nine million along the trans-Saharan caravan route, and eleven to twenty million (depending on the author) across the Atlantic Ocean"

88 “Internal” Migration The United States Brazil Caribbean Migration
Civil War to World War I Was a war over slavery: free vs. slave labor Only real issue which divided US Republicans were abolitionist minded Southern senators, congressmen outnumbered Emancipation Proclamation, 13-15th Amendments Many ex-Slaves immigrated to west as cowboys, soldiers World War I and II Migration from South White men in army; black labor, workers needed Sought better lives and did not want to return to South Political rights were outgrowth of economic rights Change From 1890 to 2000 90% lived in rural South Current: Most form an urbanized ethnic group Brazil Most ex-slaves lived in the Northeast corner Location of sugar production Formed almost 90% of the population Changing Economic Structures Coffee production, diamonds & gold mining, industrialization occurred Afro-Brazilians moved southward, to cities to seek work Caribbean Migration Afro-Caribbean migration to Florida, New York, London Economic factors push and pull immigration, families often followed Political instability in Cuba, Haiti, Dominican Republic Refugees result from Revolutions, harsh internal rule

89 Counter-Migration or Back to Africa
1787, 1821 British established Sierra Leone To be “home” for freed, emancipated slaves 74,000 slaves moved there Many tried to move back to homelands American anti-slavery activists established Liberia 20,000 slaves moved there Ex-slaves came to monopolize power, formed elite class In US: Marcus Garvey, Black Panthers, etc. During 1920s sought to convince blacks to move to Africa Black Resistance to oppression in US Truth: Africans have become part of new homelands American blacks are seen as whites by Africans Black culture in Americas is a creole cultural blend Problem: accept blacks as equals in all ways in Americas Blacks have to join economic power with political power But blacks in many countries have to obtain political rights Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama Brazil Cuba, Puerto Rico Colombia, Venezuela, Peru

90 Popular Movements To Settle Interior Lands
Manifest Destinies Popular Movements To Settle Interior Lands

91 Nguni & Mfecane Nguni Mfecane Mfecane meets Great Trek
Bantu tribal language family in Southern Africa Arrived 1600s in Cape area Arrive in area same time as Dutch settled Capetown Tribes: Zulu, Xhosa, Sotho, Swahzi, Nbelle, Shona Many moved into area following decline of Zimbabwe Corn introduced from Americas: rise of population Scarce resources during 10 year drought: conflict Mfecane Zulu for the scattering or crushing Rise of Zulu Empire c – 1840 Created by Shaka Zulu, the use of modern iron swords Zulu war machine forced Ngoni tribes to scatter Let to rise of Zulu-like states throughout region Mfecane meets Great Trek British rule increasingly unacceptable to Dutch Farmer (Boer) British oppose slavery which Boers support Boer picked up entire communities and migrated to interior The Great Trek of Boers collided up against Mfecane

92 Mapping the Mfecane

93 Settlement of the Frontier
Settler Colonies Supposedly virgin, unsettled land is taken and settled by farmers Native populations are pushed aside often violently The culture of the conqueror replaces all previous cultures The Open Frontier Many states since 1500 CE settle lands on their exterior Often these lands were inhabited by less powerful peoples These natives were inferior technologically These natives were often subject to the diseases of the foreigners These natives cultures were largely destroyed as their lifestyles ended Each of these settler cultures Saw natives as “savages” Saw their own culture as civilization Saw their settlement of the land as bringing civilization to savages Startling similarities between these cultures and process Russian settlement of Siberia The American and Canadian settlement of their western lands The Brazilian and Argentinian settlement of their interior lands The Australian settlement of the continent The Boer Great Trek into the interior of South Africa The Chinese settlement of their northern and western lands

94 The Boer Great Trek Dutch in South Africa
17th century Dutch, French Huguenot settlers in Cape Province Society develops called Boer speaking Afrikaans, a dialect of Dutch Create a settler society based on ranching, slavery British Acquire Cape Province Following Napoleonic Wars, British annex Cape Province British abolish slavery and English immigration increases Great Trek Waves: semi-nomadic pastoralists and skilled artisans, merchants, farmers Reasons for migration Felt their life style and traditions were threatened by the British Disliked Anglicization policies in society and faith Disagreed with British abolition of slavery Felt British were unreceptive to attacks by Bantu Nguni tribes on borders Sought good farm land which was in short supply in Cape Province Boers had a large, expanding, young population Results Establishment of three Boer Republics in interior These republics did not permit slavery but established racial segregation Conflicts between Boers and Bantu especially Zulu and Xhosa increase

95 Mapping the Great Trek

96 19th and 20th Century Migrations
Modern Mass Movement

97 The Facts Most common types 18th Century Immigration
Labor migration Refugee migration Urbanization 18th Century Immigration Accelerated over time period Largest examples were the African slave trades Colonization of territories common 19th Century Immigration Caused by industrialization and opening of interior lands Large demand for labor to replace slaves, work factories, plantations Facilitated by modern developments in transportation International Trade and Imperialism are influencing factors Remade the Americas, Australia 20th Century Immigration Cannot understand modern world without immigration Economic and Social Globalization and modern immigration are linked Economic disparities, decolonization, and war are critical Intellectual migration has become quite common

98 19th c. Demographic Revolution
Causes Massive Population Surge beginning in West Immediate Results Prior to Industrialization Massive insecurity Temporary migration Growth of Cities and Urbanization due to Industrialization By 1900 had begun to spread to Japan, Russia, Eastern Europe Rural economies replaced by urban industrial economies in West Enclosure movements around the world Food shortages such as Irish Potato Famine Industrialization and Urbanization demanded all types of labor Need to replace slavery, serfdom in some areas of the world New Circular Migration Patterns Commercialization of agriculture produced new labor demands Short term labor common, replaces year round farm labor New Migrant Labor for farming, construction of infrastructure Migration of women as laborers became common Higher mobility of people including labor

99 19th c. The Atlantic World Western and Eastern Europe
1800 – 1940: 50 million Europeans immigrated Southern Europeans: Italians, Greeks, Albanians Eastern Europeans: Poles, Czechs, Slovaks, Hungarians, Russians, Jews Western/Northern Europe: Scandinavians, Irish West Europe saw urbanization, migration of labor from farms to industry Africa Slave trade continued until early 20th century Atlantic Slave trade largely ended by 1820 Illegal Slave Trade to Brazil continued until c. 1850 Trans-Saharan and Indian Ocean Slave Trades continued until c. 1910 Popular Migrations Boer Great Trek from Capetown to Interior to avoid British influence, control Mfecane in South Africa due to Zulu wars spreads Nguni to Southern Africa Migration of Somali into Ogden, East Africa due to drought Large colonial settlement of Europeans to Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, South Africa Muslim jihads on West African Sahel produce migrations of people across region Africans move to work gold, rubber, diamond, industrial concerns of Europeans The Americas 19th Century Largest recipients were the USA, Canada, Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay USA, Canada received large populations from Ireland, Germany, Scandinavia Settlement of the Frontier Mexico, USA, Canada, Brazil, Argentina all settled their frontiers All attempted to attract settlers and laborers with good salaries, grant of land

100 19th c. Asian Migration to Africa
South and Southeast Asia 50 million Indians, Chinese, Malay, Filipinos migrated as contract laborers Commercial labor settled in thriving cities, ports Physical labor worked tea, rubber, rice, sugar, coffee plantations Indians (Both Hindu and Muslims) Went to African plantations as contract laborers, physical laborers Many voluntarily moved to Africa to establish businesses to serve migrants British used Indians as lower colonial administrators in their Asian empire Indians in East Africa First arrived as coolie laborers in late 1800s to build the Ugandan Railway Original 32,000 contracted laborers Many stayed as shopkeepers, artisans, traders, clerks, low level administrators Excluded from middle, senior ranks of the colonial government, from farming Became commercial middleman, professional community including doctors, lawyers Indian traders followed Arab trading routes inland on the coasts of East Africa Indians had monopoly on Zanzibar's trade in 19th century Between the building of the railways and the end of World War II Number of Indians in East Africa swelled to 320,000 By 1940s: some colonial areas passed laws restricting the flow of immigrants The Indians had firmly established control of commercial trade 80 to 90 percent in Kenya, Uganda plus sections of industrial development In 1948, all but 12 of Uganda's 195 cotton ginneries were Indian run Indians in South Africa The majority of the Asian South African population is Indian in origin Most of them descended from indentured workers Transported to work in 19th century on sugar plantations of Natal They are largely English speaking 1.2 million Asians in South Africa represent 2% of South Africa’s population Gandhi worked as lawyer in South Africa amongst immigrant workers African National Congress modeled after Indian National Congress

101 Migration 1800 to 1914

102 Major 20th c. Migrations

103 Immigration and World Wars
World War I and After Refugees produced by warfare in record numbers Millions of colonial subjects migrated to fronts to support war 100,000 Vietnamese; 100,000 Chinese, 100,000 Africans Many worked in Europe, at war fronts as laborers Peace Treaty produced immigration Germans expelled from former territories Turks expelled from Europe Greeks expelled from Turkey Armenian Genocide Millions of Armenians migrated from SW Asia to Americas Increased Jewish migration to Palestine reached 400,000 by 1948 The Soviet Union’s Migrations 3 million refugees (ethnic groups, elite) fled communist revolutions to west USSR resettled peoples whom they distrusted World War II Japanese invasion of China created up to 50 million internal immigrants Nazis used forced settlement, internal migration Millions of Germans settled in occupied Eastern lands European Jews rounded up and shipped to Eastern Europe Millions of Europeans used as slave labor in German factories Prisoners of War and Refugees number in millions End of War Expulsions and Resettlement Allies expelled millennia old German populations from Eastern, Central Europe Millions of Poles, Czechs, Ukrainians, Romanians resettled in former German lands Soviets forcibly resettled 100,000+ Eastern Europeans into USSR

104 Decolonization: Atlantic
1922 – 1975 Effect of two world wars and fight for democracy, self-determination Europe lost its colonies and most colonial populations repatriated home Many highly educated elite of ethnic groups moved for opportunities The bulk of immigrants were as laborers when labor was needed Violence of the change of administration influenced others to migration Americas West Indies Underemployment drove men, women to UK for jobs Most have stayed in United Kingdom and not returned home Suriname Some 33% of the Surinamese have gone to Netherlands A high rate have returned home Africa Portugal received greatest bulk of Africans migrating to Europe Originally qualified Africans for school and some unskilled laborers After collapse of colonies, whites returned along with African elite, more laborers East Africa Largely Hindu, Muslims, and Asian populations left Many went to India and Pakistan but a considerable number to UK, Canada North Africa More than 1.5 million French colonists returned home en masse in 1950s and 1960s Almost one million laborers and students have migrated to France and Spain

105 Mapping Migration since 1945

106 Current Immigration Routes

107 Labor Migration Since 1945 Causes Sources: Poor & Smart Migrate
Developed world of rich nations attracted labor and brain power with higher pay The bulk of immigrants were laborers when labor was needed Many ethnic commercial minorities felt threatened and moved Population in 3rd world high; birth rates in 1st world declined = labor shortage 1st world citizens increasingly abandoned agriculture = need for farm labor Construction laborers needed in urbanizing world The famous Brain Drain of the educated elite to the 1st World Sources: Poor & Smart Migrate Net Recipients United States, Canada, Western Europe Persian Gulf States Japan and Australia South Africa Net Suppliers Eastern and Southern Europeans to Northern and Western Europe South Asian Muslims to the Persian Gulf States North Africans, West Africans to West Europe especially Spain, France, Portugal, Italy and UK Central Americans to the United States and Canada The Caribbean to the United States and United Kingdom Southeast Asians to France, the United States, and Australia Turks to Germany and Austria Irish to the United Kingdom and Continental Europe Chinese to the United States and Canada Southern African males to South African diamond, gold mines and industry

108 Migration: 20th c. Africa

109 Refugee/Asylum Migration Since 1945
Causes Cold War Rivalry between Great Powers Revolutions and Military Coups Genocide and Ethnic Cleansing War between Neighbors Persecuted Religious Minorities Total: 80 million by 1994 Sources Warfare of all types Ethnic minorities relocated in many nations by Allied Nations especially German populations Korea, Vietnam, Berlin Crisis, Hungarian Crisis, Prague Spring all produced refugees The Middle East, Afghanistan, Georgia, Chechnya, and Civil Wars in Congo (Zaire) Collapse of Communism Many ethnic minorities, talented individuals sought refugee in the West and United States Authoritarian Violence Military regimes, violence against citizens: Chile, Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, South Africa Revolutions Forcible takeover of states by revolutionaries: Cuba, Algeria, Iran, Vietnam Ethnic Cleansing and Genocide Bosnia, Rwanda, Sudan, Cambodia Nationalism Newly independent nations produced migrants of ethnic minorities threatened by change

110 Internal Refugees

111 Forced Immigration

112 Net Immigration

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