Presentation on theme: "Reporting Category 5. Homo sapiens emerged in East Africa between 100,000 & 400,000 years ago. Homo sapiens migrated from Africa to Eurasia, Australia,"— Presentation transcript:
Homo sapiens emerged in East Africa between 100,000 & 400,000 years ago. Homo sapiens migrated from Africa to Eurasia, Australia, and the Americas Early humans were hunter-gatherers whose survival depended on wild plants and animals
Mesopotamia: Euphrates & Tigris River Valley (Southwest Asia) Egypt: Nile River Valley and Nile Delta (Africa) India: Indus River Valley (South Asia – Indian Subcontinent) China: Huang He (Yellow) River These river valleys offered Rich soil and irrigation water for agriculture, and they tended to be in locations easily protected from invasion by nomadic people.
ECONOMIC & SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT Agriculture (limited arable land suitable for farming) Commerce and the spread of Hellenistic Culture Shift from barter (trading) to money economy (use of coins) Mountainous terrain both helped and hindered the development of city-states Greek cities were designed to promote civic & commercial life Colonization was prompted by overpopulation and the search for arable land
Centrally located in the Italian peninsula Alps: provided physical barrier and protection to the North Mediterranean Sea: Provided protection as a natural barrier and provided seaborne commerce & trade
Protection of the Eastern Frontier Far away from the Germanic Tribes attacking the Western Empire Crossroads of Trade Easily fortified site on a peninsula border by natural harbors
Diffusion along trade routes from Mecca to Medina Expansion despite great distances, desert environments, & mountain barriers Spread into Fertile Crescent, Iran, & Central Asia was helped along by a weak Persian & Byzantine Empires
Angles & Saxons migrated from continental Europe to Great England Magyars migrated from Central Asia to Hungary Vikings migrated from Scandinavia to Russia
Manors and Castles provided protection from invasions, reinforcing the feudal system Invasions disrupted trade, led to the decline of trade, and caused the influence of the church to decline.
Silk Road: China to Mediterranean Basin Maritime Routes in Indian Ocean Trans-Saharan trade routes in N. Africa Northern Europe and the Black Sea Western Europe trade by sea and river
MAYAN CIVILIZATIONAZTEC CIVILIZATION Located in Mexican & Central American Rain Forests Represented by the city of Chichen Itza City States ruled by Kings Economy based on Agriculture & Trade Polytheistic Religion: Pyramids Located in Central Mexico: Arid Valley Represented by city of Tenochtitlan Ruled by Emperor Economy based on Agriculture and tributes from conquered peoples Polytheistic: Pyramids, Rituals (sacrifices)
INCAN CIVILIZATION MESO-AMERICAN ACHIEVEMENTS Located in the Andes mountains of South America Represented by the city of Machu Picchu Ruled by an Emperor Economy based on high altitude farming (terrace farming) Polytheistic System of Roads Calendars Mathematics Writing and other Record Keeping systems