Presentation on theme: "UNDERSTANDING THE BUSINESS VALUE OF SYSTEMS AND MANAGING CHANGE 15."— Presentation transcript:
UNDERSTANDING THE BUSINESS VALUE OF SYSTEMS AND MANAGING CHANGE 15
LEARNING OBJECTIVES EVALUATE MODELS DETERMINING BUSINESS VALUE OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS ANALYZE PRINCIPAL CAUSES OF INFORMATION SYSTEM FAILURE ANALYZE REQUIREMENTS FOR BUILDING SUCCESSFUL SYSTEMS SELECT STRATEGIES TO MANAGE SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION
Challenges Determining benefits of information systems Not Tangible Dealing with the complexity of large scale implementations Large organization, wide area Many staff members, users requirements Technology choices, making a decision Political impact, manager bias
UNDERSTANDING BUSINESS VALUE OF INFO SYSTEMS Does a particular IS investment produce sufficient returns to justify its costs? Three approaches: CAPITAL BUDGETING MODELS PORTFOLIO ANALYSIS REAL OPTIONS PRICING MODEL (Skip this one)
Capitol Budget Several methods are can be used to justify IS technology within Capital Budget. Process for analyzing and selecting various proposals for capital expenditures. Cash flow in and out of the firm is the basis. PAYBACK METHOD: How long will it take to pay back the investment? Org inv / annual net cash inflow = # years
Capitol Budget RETURN ON INVESTMENT: Does return during useful life of an item exceed the cost to borrow money? (Total ben – cost – depriciation) / useful life = net Ben Net ben / total initial invest = ROI COST-BENEFIT RATIO: Does the ratio of benefit versus cost exceed 1? Total ben / total cost = cost-ben ratio
Capitol Budget PROFITABILITY INDEX: What is the ratio of present value of cash inflow to initial investment? NET PRESENT VALUE: Accounting for cost, earnings & time value of money what is the investment worth? INTERNAL RATE OF RETURN: Accounting for the time value of money, what is the return rate of an investment?
CAPITAL BUDGETING MODELS LIMITATIONS: Assume all relevant alternatives have been examined; cost & benefits can be expressed as $$ Ignores intangible benefits Cost are usually up front and tangible Benefits are usually back loaded and intangible.
PORTFOLIO ANALYSIS: ANALYSIS OF POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS TO DETERMINE RISKS & BENEFITS DETERMINE DESIRABLE FEATURES, ACCEPTABLE RISKS OF REQUIRED SYSTEM GENERATE PORTFOLIO OF CHARACTERISTICS, RISKS FOR EACH ALTERNATIVE Usually a SCORING MODEL is used. Sometime is it more just a matter of group consensus on priorities benefit versus risk
Risk Matrix Scoring Project Risk Cautiously Examine Identify and Develop Avoid Routine Projects High Low High Low Potential Benifit
Typical Scoring Model IDENTIFY DESIRABLE FEATURES PROVIDE WEIGHTS FOR EACH Totals TO 1.00 LOOK AT EACH ALTERNATIVE: WHICH FEATURES ARE PRESENT? TO WHAT EXTENT (as an amount)? SCORE THE ALTERNATIVE 1-5highest RANK-ORDER THE ALTERNATIVES SELECT HIGHEST RANKED OPTION
Change Management Causes of implementation failure: DESIGN DATA COST OPERATIONS
Change Agent DURING IMPLEMENTATION, INDIVIDUAL ACTS AS CATALYST DURING CHANGE PROCESS TO ENSURE SUCCESS
FACTORS IN IMPLEMENTATION OUTCOME CAUSES OF SUCCESS OR FAILURE: USER INVOLVEMENT & INFLUENCE MANAGEMENT SUPPORT LEVEL OF COMPLEXITY / RISK MANAGEMENT OF IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS
User Designer Gap DIFFERENCES IN BACKGROUNDS, INTERESTS, PRIORITIES IMPEDE COMMUNICATION AND PROBLEM SOLVING AMONG END USERS AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS SPECIALISTS
User Concerns WILL SYSTEM DELIVER INFORMATION I NEED? HOW QUICKLY CAN I ACCESS DATA? HOW EASILY CAN I RECEIVE DATA? HOW MUCH CLERICAL SUPPORT WILL I NEED FOR DATA ENTRY? HOW WILL SYSTEM OPERATION FIT INTO MY DAILY BUSINESS SCHEDULE?
Designer Concerns HOW MUCH DISK SPACE WILL MASTER FILE CONSUME? HOW MANY LINES OF PROGRAM CODE WILL THIS FUNCTION TAKE? HOW CAN WE REDUCE CPU TIME? WHAT IS THE MOST EFFICIENT WAY OF STORING THIS DATA? WHAT DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM SHOULD WE USE?
Level of Complexity and Risk PROJECT SIZE PROJECT STRUCTURE EXPERTISE WITH TECHNOLOGY
Controlling Risk LOW HIGH SMALLHIGH LOW HIGH LARGEVERY HIGH LOW SMALLVERY LOW LOW LARGELOW HIGH SMALLMEDIUM-LOW HIGH LARGEMEDIUM HIGH LOW SMALLVERY LOW STRUCTURETECHNOLOGY LEVELSIZERISK HIGH LOW LARGELOW
CONSEQUENCES OF POOR PROJECT MANAGEMENT COST OVERRUNS TIME SLIPPAGE TECHNICAL SHORTFALLS FAILURE TO OBTAIN BENEFITS
CAUSES OF POOR PROJECT MANAGEMENT IGNORANCE & OPTIMISM MYTHICAL MAN-MONTH: Many tasks sequentially linked, require training. Adding more chefs will not improve the stew. FALLING BEHIND: Bad news travels slowly upward
Challenges ENTERPRISE SYSTEMS: High risk of failure, replacing legacy systems, myriad interconnections BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING: 70% failure rate, deeply rooted in old processes, employees often unprepared
Change Management Challenges MERGERS & ACQUISITIONS: may produce a decline in shareholder value(70% do) difficult to integrate company systems organizational change, worker morale
Implementing Change CONTROL RISK FACTORS: Gear tools, methodologies to level of risk Technical complexity managed with: INTERNAL INTEGRATION TOOLS Technical Project Manager Project management managed with: FORMAL PLANNING TOOLS FORMAL CONTROL TOOLS
Formal Planning Tools PROGRAM EVALUATION & REVIEW TECHNIQUE: Diagram of project activities, sequential and concurrent, shows interactions of activities GANTT CHART: Shows activities as bars along a time line, with beginning, end of each task THESE PROVIDE SCHEDULES
Tools BUDGET: Time, money, resources MONITOR PROGRESS: Completion of tasks, fulfillment of goals CONTROL RISK FACTORS: Cost/benefits
External Integration LINK ALL USERS THROUGHOUT ORGANIZATION USE END USERS AS TEAM MEMBERS SHARE INFORMATION & PROGRESS INCLUDE TRAINING AVOID COUNTERIMPLEMENTATION
Organizational Issues ORGANIZATIONAL IMPACT ANALYSIS: How will system impact structure, attitudes, decision-making, operations SOCIOTECHNICAL DESIGN: Explore group structures, task allocation, job design for human factor