Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Systems Development and Systems Analysis"— Presentation transcript:
1 Introduction to Systems Development and Systems Analysis Chapter 20
2 Learning ObjectivesExplain the five phases of the systems development life cycle.Discuss the people involved in systems development and the roles they play.Explain the importance of systems development planning and describe planning techniques.Discuss the various types of feasibility analysis and calculate economic feasibility.Explain why system changes trigger behavioral reactions, what form this resistance to change takes, and how to avoid or minimize the resulting problems.Discuss the key issues and steps in systems analysis.
4 Who Is Involved in the SDLC? Information Systems Steering CommitteeExecutive level, plans and oversees IS function; facilitates coordination with integration of systems activitiesProject Development TeamPlan and monitor project progressProgrammersWrite and test programs according to analysts specificationsSystems AnalystsDetermine information needs, prepare specifications for programmersManagementGet users involved in the process, provide support for development projects, align projects to meet organizations strategic needsUsersCommunicate needs to system developers, help design and test to ensure complete and accurate processing of data
5 Systems Development Planning Proper planning provides for achieving goals and objectivesFor systems development, two plans needed:Master PlanLong-range and authored by steering committee outlining prioritized projects and timetablesProject Development PlanSpecific to a project and authored by the project team identifies people, hardware, software, and financial resources needed
6 Planning Techniques Program evaluation and review technique (PERT) Diagram that depicts all project activities that require time and resources with completion estimates. Determines critical path.Gantt chartBar chart that organizes activities on the left hand side and project time scheduled with a bar drawn to show the progress to date for that particular activity.
7 Business Case (Feasibility Analysis) EconomicDo benefits of new system justify the costs (time and resources) to implement?TechnicalCan we use existing technology?LegalDoes new system comply with regulations, laws, and contractual obligations?SchedulingCan the system be developed in the time allotted?OperationalDo we have the people to design and implement the system? Will people use the new system?
8 Capital Budgeting Payback period Net Present Value (NPV) Calculate the number of years required for the net savings to equal the initial cost of investmentNet Present Value (NPV)Estimate future cash flows with discounted rate for (time value of money)Internal Rate of Return (IRR)Calculates the interest rate that makes the present value of total costs equal to the present value of total earnings
9 Why People Resist Change? DisruptionAdditional requests for information and additional burdens of time is distracting and prompts negative feelingsManner change is introducedApproaches are different for top level and lower level employeesBiases and emotionsPersonal characteristics and backgroundAgeOpen to technology and comfortable with itFearOf failure, the unknown, losing statusLack of top-management supportIf the top management is not supportive why should the employee change?Bad prior experiencesBad experience with prior IS changesPoor communicationEmployees need to understand why change is necessary
10 How to Prevent Behavioral Problems Management supportProvide resources and motivationSatisfy user needsInvolve usersParticipation improves communication and commitmentReduce fears, emphasize opportunitiesAvoid emotionalismProvide trainingPerformance evaluationReevaluate to ensure performance standards are consistent with the new systemKeep open communicationsTest the system prior to implementationKeep system simpleAvoid radical changesControl user’s expectationsBe realistic
12 Key Terms Systems development life cycle (SDLC) Systems analysis Conceptual designPhysical designImplementation and conversionOperations and maintenanceInformation systems steering committeeSystems analystComputer programmerProject development planMaster planProgram evaluation and review technique (PERT)Critical pathGantt chartFeasibility studyEconomic feasibilityTechnical feasibilityLegal feasibilityScheduling feasibilityOperational feasibilityCapital budgeting modelPayback periodNet present value (NPV)
13 Key Terms (continued) Internal Rate of Return (IRR) Behavioral aspects of changeAggressionProjectionAvoidanceRequest for systems developmentInitial investigation